Blaine Robison, M.A.
Published 17 September 2021
Scripture Text: The Scripture text of this commentary is prepared by Blaine Robison based on the Westminster Leningrad Codex found at BibleHub.com. The essentially literal translation seeks to reflect the Hebraic character of the author and writing. Other Bible versions may be quoted. Click here for Abbreviations of Bible Versions.
Sources: Bibliographic data for works cited may be found at the end of the chapter commentary. Works without page numbers are cited ad loc. Important Jewish sources include the following:
● LXX: The abbreviation "LXX" ("70") stands for the Septuagint, the Jewish translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, which was in use among Jews by the mid-2nd century B.C. Online.
● MT: The Masoretic Text is the authoritative Hebrew text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism. Work on developing a uniform Hebrew Bible began in the 2nd century under Rabbi Akiva, but completed by Jewish scholars known as the Masoretes between the 7th and 10th centuries A.D. The oldest extant manuscripts date from around the 9th century. Online.
● Talmud: Unless otherwise indicated references to the Talmud are from the Soncino Babylonian Talmud (1948); available online at Halakhah.com. The Jerusalem Talmud, identified with "TJ," may be found here. Click here for Talmud abbreviations.
● Targums: The targums are early Aramaic translations of the Hebrew text with commentary: Targum Jerusalem (1st c. AD), Targum Neofiti (1st c. AD), Targum Onkelos (c. 35–120 AD) and Targum Jonathan (2nd c. AD). See an index of Targum texts here.
Special Terms: In order to emphasize the Hebraic nature of Scripture I use the terms ADONAI (for 'LORD' when quoting a Tanakh source), Tanakh (Old Testament), Besekh (New Testament), Yeshua (Jesus) and Messiah (Christ).
Syntax: Unless otherwise noted the meaning of Hebrew words is from The New Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (1981), abbreviated as "BDB" and the meaning of Greek words is from F.W. Danker, The Concise Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (2009). Parsing information for Hebrew verbs is taken from John Joseph Owens, Analytical Key to the Old Testament (1989). An explanation of Hebrew verbs and grammatical construction can be found at Hebrew4Christians.com.
Isaiah (Heb. Yeshayahu) has a special compound name that means "YHVH is salvation" or "YHVH has saved." Isaiah was the son of Amoz of the tribe of Judah and perhaps related to the royal house. The prophet lived during the reigns of the Judean kings Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, and probably the first years of Manasseh. He was contemporary with the last five kings of Israel: Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah, and Hosea. Isaiah received his call to ministry in a dramatic fashion in the year King Uzziah died, c. 740 BC (Isa 6:1). His prophetic ministry lasted forty years during which he was an adviser (court prophet) to Ahaz and Hezekiah. He married a prophetess and had two sons (Isa 7:3; 8:3). Jewish tradition says that Isaiah was put to death by King Manasseh by being sawn in half (cf. Heb 11:37), so Yebamoth 49b; Ascension of Isaiah 1:9; 5:2.
Isaiah is the longest of the prophetic books, containing almost half of the Messianic prophecies in the Tanakh. Isaiah wrote mostly warnings in the first half of his book and mostly comfort and promise in the second half. Various scholars have proposed that some unknown author wrote the second half of book of Isaiah (40−66) and a few scholars have actually suggested a Third Isaiah (56−66). Against this viewpoint are these arguments:
• For 25 centuries no one doubted that Isaiah was the author of all 66 chapters;
• There is no evidence whatever that the two (or three) parts of the book ever existed separately;
• The same style, vocabulary, and figures of speech occur in both sections;
• Quotations in the Besekh from parts of Isaiah labeled as "Second" and "Third Isaiah" attribute those passages to Isaiah the prophet (Luke 3:4-6=Isa 40:3-5; Matt 8:17=Isa 53:4; Matt 12:17-21=Isa 42:1-4; Luke 4:17-21=Isa 61:1-2; Rom 10:16=Isa 53:1; Acts 8:32-33=Isa 53:7-8; Rom 10:20=Isa 65:1); and
• One of the Dead Sea Scrolls includes the entire text of Isaiah, with no break between chapters 39 and 40.
Highlights of the book include Isaiah's extraordinary vision of seraphim (6:1-7); the prediction of both the Messiah's virgin birth (7:14), and His dual nature (9:6); the description of the early days of Lucifer before he fell and became the devil (14:12-15; cf. Ezek. 28:11-18); Judah's deliverance from Assyria (36:1−37:38); Hezekiah's miraculous healing and extended life (38:1-22); the precise prophecy of Cyrus, king of Persia (44:28; 45:1); the prophecy of the Suffering Servant's ministry (Chaps 53:13−53:12); and the vision of the new heavens and the new earth (66:22).
We're supposed to believe that some of the greatest literature in the Bible, not to mention the world, with its many and detailed prophecies of the Messiah, was written by someone completely anonymous and unremembered in Judaism. Modern scholars go to incredible lengths to avoid believing in the truth of biblical material, just because they can't accept that the Lord revealed the name of Cyrus (Isa 44:28; 45:1) almost two hundred years before he was born or that Isaiah was given words of exhortation and comfort for a people he knew would go into exile (Isa 39:6). If they can't believe the prophecy about Cyrus, how can they believe the prophecies that named the Messiah (Isa 7:14; 9:6; 46:13; 51:5; 59:16)?
Chapter 58 begins with God's call to Isaiah to rebuke the people and the house of Jacob for their sins and transgressions. What follows is a severe reproof of Proto-Phariseeism, hypocrisy in practicing and relying on outward ceremonies, such as fasting with sackcloth and ashes, without true repentance (58:1-5). God rebukes the Israelites for having reduced the spiritual observance of Yom Kippur to a "form of godliness" and expecting God to bless them for their religiosity. Isaiah then lays down a clear and comprehensive summary of the duties they owed to their fellow citizens and family members (58:6-7). Significant promises of blessing and prosperity are likewise added to the performance of these duties in a variety of compelling images (58:8-12). Great temporal and spiritual blessedness will also belong to those who keep holy the Sabbath day (58:13-14).
Complaint and Divine Assessment, 58:1-5
The Fast God Desires, 58:6-7
Blessings for Obedience, 58:8-12
Call to Sabbath-Keeping, 58:13-14
Complaint and Divine Assessment, 58:1-5
1 "Cry aloud, do not hold back, raise your voice like a shofar, tell My people their transgression, and the house of Jacob their sins. (TLV)
Cry aloud: lit. "cry out with your throat." The prophet is encouraged to do, and "spare not", the voice, throat, or his lungs, nor the people neither he was sent to (Gill). like a shofar: Heb. shofar (SH-7782), curved ram's horn, first in Joshua 6:4. The shofar was sounded on religious, political and military occasions. The message of the prophet is intended to grab attention and sound an alarm.
In the Talmud the words are thus paraphrased, "shew my people their transgression; these are the disciples of the wise men, whose sins of error or ignorance become to them presumptuous ones; "and the house of Jacob their sins"; these are the people of the earth, or the common people, whose presumptuous sins become to them as sins of ignorance." (Baba Metzia, 33b) Rashi accepts this interpretation.
The sins and transgressions rebuked in this chapter directly relate to the two greatest commandments. The coldness, deadness, formality and hypocrisy in religious worship represented their lack of total love for God. Then the mistreatment of workers and failing to take care of the needy represented failure of loving neighbors.
2 Yet they seek Me day to day and delight to know My ways, as if they were a nation that did right, and had not forsaken their God's decree. They ask Me for righteous judgments; they delight in the nearness of God." (TLV)
This verse points out the religiosity and external piety of the Israelites that offend God.
Ellicott comments that the "seeking" is that of those who come, like the elders in Ezekiel 20:1, to "enquire" of the LORD, and looking for an oracle from Him. The words point to the incongruous union, … of this formal recognition of the LORD with an apostate life. Every phrase rings in the tone of an incisive irony, describing each element of a true devotion which the people did not possess.
3 "Why have we fasted, and You do not see and why have we afflicted our souls, and You take no notice?" "Behold, in the day of your fast you pursue your own interest, and oppress all your laborers." (BR)
Why: Heb. mah, interrogative pronoun; what? how? why? i.e., "for what reason." have we fasted: Heb. tsum, Qal perf., 1p-pl., to abstain from food, fast. (LXX Grk. nēsteuō). The Hebrew verb occurs 21 times in the Tanakh. Merely skipping a meal or dieting is not fasting. Generally the anecdotes in the Tanakh of fasting were voluntary acts, done in response to some crisis or tragedy. In this passage fasting is treated as a religious duty, which the complainers have faithfully conducted. For a review of the practice of fasting in the Bible see my article Fasting.
and: Heb. vav, conj., "and, furthermore, but." You do not: Heb. lo, negative particle. see: Heb. ra'ah, Qal perf., 2p-ms, to see. This is a bold confrontational question to assume that God had ignored their actions. The masculine singular form of the verb affirms the singularity (Heb. echad) of the God of Israel. Why: The interrogative is assumed for grammatical consistency. have we afflicted: Heb. anah, Piel perf., 1p-cp, afflict, bow down, do violence to, put down, oppress. This verb occurs first in the prophecy given to Abraham that his descendants would be afflicted 400 years (Gen 15:13), and then it is used for the oppression imposed on the Israelites in Egypt (Ex 1:11-12). The verb is also used to describe the rape of Dinah by Shechem (Gen 34:2).
our souls: Heb. nephesh, 1p-pl., soul, living being, life, self, person, desire, appetite, emotion, and passion. Nephesh might be distinguished from the "spirit" (ruach) and "body" (Heb. basar) of a person, but also can refer to the entire person as a unity. Many Christian versions translate the phrase as "humbled ourselves." The English verb "humbled" seems inadequate to the context, since it means to abase oneself, to assume a deferential attitude before someone else. The CJB translates the phrase as "mortify ourselves" but TLV translates the phrase literally. Non-Messianic Jewish versions also have divergent translations: the JPS-1917 is literal, but The Israel Bible and NJPS translate the phrase as "starved our bodies."
The first person plural denotes the complaint of a group. The verbal phrase "afflict our souls" alludes to the Torah instruction for the observance of Yom Kippur:
"And this shall be for you a statute forever: in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall afflict [Heb. anah] your souls and do no work at all, whether the native, or the stranger who sojourns among you. 30 for on this day atonement shall be made for you to cleanse you from all your sins; that you may be clean before ADONAI. 31 It is a sabbath of rest for you, you shall afflict [Heb. anah] your souls; it is a statute forever." (Lev 16:29-31 BR)
"Indeed, the tenth day of this seventh month is Yom Kippurim [Day of Atonements]; it shall be a holy assembly for you, and you shall afflict [Heb. anah] your souls and present an offering by fire to ADONAI." (Lev 23:27 BR)
"And on the tenth day of this seventh month you shall have a holy assembly, and you shall afflict [Heb. anah] your souls; you shall not do any work." (Num 29:6 BR)
Israelite interpretation of the Torah in Isaiah's time understood the instruction to "afflict souls" as "fasting," a denial of food for the body. Rabbinic Judaism also interpreted the Yom Kippur instruction as fasting and added other forms of self-denial, such as no wearing of leather shoes, no bathing or washing, no anointing oneself with perfumes or lotions, and no marital relations (Yoma 8:1). Isaiah does not assert that God necessarily agreed with this view. The Torah instruction does not use the term for "fast," because simply abstaining from food while you wait on the high priest to carry out the sacrifices at the Holy Place was not God's intention.
In fact, the Hebrew verb "fast" and its derivative noun "fasting," do not occur in the books of Moses at all. Certainly the "self-affliction" included obeying the instruction of God for this day, treating the day as a Sabbath, refraining from all work, and attending the congregational assembly. However, given the seriousness of the occasion God more likely intended the self-affliction to be spiritual self-examination in order to admit one's shortcomings and sins that needed atonement. If one spent the day in this rigorous introspection of behavior over the past twelve months then delighting in food would seem inappropriate.
and: Heb. vav. You take no: Heb. lo. notice: Heb. yada, Qal impf., to know. "You don't bother to know about it." At this point the complainers don't realize there is laughing in heaven. The complainers do not explain what they expected from God to prove that He "saw" and "took notice." Now, as though they had performed a meritorious work, the people ask what good had come of it? (Ellicott)
The instruction to afflict one's soul is counter-cultural, especially in modern times. We are basically good, so the psychologists tell us. Evil behavior is blamed on racial inequities and terrorism is redefined as "activism." Conversely, many Evangelical Christians believe they sin every day in thought, word, and deed, a philosophy that flies in the face of Paul's rebuttal (Rom 6:1-2) and is contrary to the calls to stop sinning (John 5:14; 8:11; 1Cor 15:34; Eph 4:26; 1Tim 5:20). Scripture is realistic about the nature of sin and its consequences. "The soul who sins shall die" (Ezek 18:4 ESV).
In the Bible people are called to confess and repent of their sins (2Chr 6:37; Ezek 14:6; 18:30; Matt 3:2; Luke 13:3; Acts 3:19). Peter admitted to Yeshua, "I am a sinful man!" (Luke 5:8). Paul described himself before he met Yeshua on the Damascus Road as the worst of sinners (1Tim 1:15). Yeshua made it clear that the Pharisaic self-assurance of meriting God's grace through fasting is a false hope (Luke 18:13). Favor with God requires confession of sin. Everywhere in Scripture forgiveness is contingent on repentance (2Chr 7:14; Ps 7:12; Isa 30:15; Ezek 18:32; Dan 9:20; Mark 1:4; Rom 10:10; 1Jn 1:9).
Maimonides provided this analysis of the Torah instruction regarding Yom Kippur:
"The object of the Fast of Atonement is evident. The Fast creates the sense of repentance; it is the same day on which the chief of all prophets came down [from Mount Sinai] with the second tables, and announced to the people the divine pardon of their great sin; the day was therefore appointed for ever as a day devoted to repentance and true worship of God. For this reason all material enjoyment, all trouble and care for the body, are interdicted, no work may be done; the day must be spent in confession; every one shall confess his sins and abandon them." (The Guide for the Perplexed, III. 43)
Behold: Heb. hên, interjection, behold, lo. Hên is less widely used than hinneh, and in prose mostly confined to calling attention to some fact upon which action is to be taken, or a conclusion based. Here the interjection calls for giving attention to the importance of something. in: Heb. bet, prep., in. the day: Heb. yom, day or daylight. Yom is generally used in Scripture as a specific division of time denoting the daytime portion of a 24-hour day (Gen 1:5) or a complete solar/lunar cycle of 24 hours (Ex 2:13). The noun is used here of the appointed day of Yom Kippur. of your fast: Heb. tsom, abstinence from food for a devotional or religious purpose; fasting, a fast.
you pursue: Heb. matsa, Qal impf., 2p-pl., to attain to, find. The LXX translates with heuriskō, to find after seeking. your own interest: Heb. chephets, that in which one takes delight, pleasure, longing, will, purpose. The LXX translates with humōn thelēmata, "your wants." Some commentators as Delitzsch, Ellicott and Lumby interpret the noun to mean "business." Indeed the AMPC interprets the clause to mean "you find profit in your business." Lumby interprets the criticism as "you find opportunity to do a profitable stroke of business." Rashi also interprets this clause as pursuing business interests. See verse 13 of this chapter.
and: Heb. vav. oppress: Heb. nagas, Qal impf., 2p-pl., to press, drive, oppress, exact. Its first use is in the context of Egyptian bondage (Ex 3:7; 5:6, 10, 13-14). all: Heb. kol, the whole, all. your laborers: pl. of Heb. atseb, 2p-mpc, toiler, worker. The noun occurs only here in the Tanakh. Rashi interprets this clause to mean "and from all your debtors you exact payment." God's response is "Oh, you suffered by refraining from eating for one day. Pat yourself on the back; you have done something truly noble. Don't make me laugh." God accuses the complainers of doing to their workers what the Egyptians did to the Israelites and the violated a key Torah principle "You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt" (Deut 5:15; 15:15).
This oppression could well have taken three forms: First requiring employees to work on the Sabbath in violation of the fourth commandment (Deut 5:15). Second, withholding wages from the workers instead of paying them as the Torah required (Lev 19:13; Deut 24:15; Jer 22:13; Mal 3:5; Jas 5:4).
Third, not setting Hebrew slaves free in the seventh year (Deut 15:12). The release of slaves would be a memorial of God's deliverance of Israel from Egyptian bondage (cf. Ex 20:2). In all these things obedience would demonstrate trust in the faithfulness of God to take care of His people. Yet, there is no mention in Scripture of the Israelites ever obeying all the requirements of the Sabbatical years.
There is an anecdote in Jeremiah that King Zedekiah had proclaimed a release of slaves, but after the release the owners reneged and took back the slaves (Jer 34:8). For this betrayal of trust God sent judgment on Judah. Indeed Ezra recorded that Israel's exile lasted seventy years in order for the land to have the Sabbatical years that had been neglected (2Chr 36:21; cf. Lev 26:27-28; Jer 25:11; 29:10).
4 Behold, your fasting ends in dispute and strife and hitting with a fist of violence. Your fasting as you do this day will not make your voices heard on high.
Behold: Heb. hên, interjection. See the previous verse. your fasting: Heb. tsum, Qal impf., 2p-pl., to abstain from food, fast. The verb is used as a parallelism with the verbal phrase "afflicted our souls" in the previous verse. ends in: Heb. lamed, prep., "with regard to." The LXX has the preposition eis, lit. "into," which denotes movement toward a result. dispute: Heb. rib, strife, dispute, controversy, case at law, litigation. The LXX has krisis, which often refers to the act of judging in a legal context. and: Heb. vav, conj. strife: Heb. matstsah, strife, contention, quarrel. The noun occurs only three times in the Tanakh (also Prov 13:10; 17:19). The LXX has machē, contention, fight, quarrel.
and: Heb. vav. to: Heb. lamed. hitting: Heb. nakah, Hiphil inf., to smite. The LXX has tuptō, beat, strike, or wound. with: Heb. bet, prep., in, with. a fist: Heb. egroph, the hand closed tightly, with the fingers doubled into the palm; a fist. of violence: Heb. resha, wickedness, here referring to an act of violence and crime against civil law. The LXX translates the clause as "you beat the humble with your fists." Lumby suggests that the fasting made them as irritable as Arabs in the month of Ramadan; it produced a quarrelsome temper which even led to open violence. Ellicott comments that an unspiritual fasting irritates the nerves and embitters the temper.
Your fasting: Heb. tsum, Qal impf., 2p-pl. as you do this: Heb. kaf, prep., "according to." day: Heb. yom. See the previous verse. The time reference is to Yom Kippur. will not: Heb. lo, negative adverb. make your voices: 2p-pl. of Heb. qol, sound, speech, voice. heard: Heb. shama, Hiphil inf., to hear. on: Heb. bet, prep. high: Heb. marom, height. The noun alludes to heaven as the height of the heavens (Ps 71:19), the place of God's dwelling. This last sentence asserts that God will not hear the prayer of which such a fast is the accompaniment.
5 Is it a fast like this I have chosen? A day for a man to afflict his soul? Or, is it to bow down his head like a bulrush, and spread out sackcloth and ashes? Will you call this a fast, and an acceptable day to ADONAI?" (BR)
Is it: Heb. hayah, Qal impf., to be, become, come to pass. a fast: Heb. tsom. See verse 3 above. like: Heb. kaf, prep. this: Heb. zeh, pronoun, this, here. I have chosen: Heb. bachar, Qal impf., to choose, which may be a straightforward decision or choice between alternatives, especially between the right or good way and the bad way. As a divine choice God did not consider an alternative. A day: Heb. yom. See verse 3 above. for a man: Heb. adam, man, mankind, here the former. Its first use is of the man God created in the Garden (Gen 1:26-27; 2:7). to afflict: Heb. anah, Piel inf. See verse 3 above. his soul: Heb. nephesh. See verse 3 above. This second question actually answers the first, because afflicting the soul was God's will for Yom Kippur.
Or, is it to bow down: Heb. kaphaph, to bend, bend down, be bent or bowed. his head: Heb. rosh, head, here as the anatomical part of the body. like: Heb. kaf, prep. a bulrush: Heb. agmon, a rush, bulrush, a kind of reed plant from which papyrus was made. The bulrush was a gigantic hollow-stemmed grass which grew along river banks and in moist areas. Reeds and rushes grew anywhere from one to six meters (3-20 feet) high and had long, narrow leaves. A cluster of white flowers formed at the top of each stem. The reeds were used in many various ways (NIBD 855).
and: Heb. vav, conj. spread out: Heb. yatsa, Hiphil impf., to lay or spread. The verb implies preparation for sitting. sackcloth: Heb. saq, sack or sackcloth, a garment of coarse material fashioned from goat or camel hair worn as a sign of mourning or anguish. The word "sack" is a transliteration of the Hebrew word rather than a translation. Some Bible characters donned sackcloth to symbolize deep emotional distress (Gen 37:34; 2Sam 3:31; 21:10; Isa 37:1; Joel 1:13) or in connection with fasting (1Kgs 21:27; Neh 9:1; Esth 4:3; Ps 35:13). and: Heb. vav. ashes: Heb. epher, the remains of something after burning; ashes. At times the ashes that remained from a sacrifice were kept for later ritual use. Also, ashes from a fireplace or furnace were used.
Grief or humiliation were expressed by placing ashes on the head (2Sam 13:19) or by sitting in ashes (Job 2:8). Dust was sometimes used in lieu of ashes (Josh 7:6; Job 2:12; Ps 72:9; Isa 47:1; Mic 1:7, 7:17). The use of sackcloth and ashes signified mourning (Esth 4:1, 3; Jer 6:26; Dan 9:3) or repentance (cf. Job 42:6; Jon 3:6; Matt 11:21). The combination of sackcloth and ashes together in historical anecdotes usually represents an intense emotional state. However, as Motyer notes, sackcloth and ashes are not commanded in the Torah, and their use in this context indicates a performance designed to impress God but lacking any emotional content. The verbal clause implies spreading ashes on the ground, and then laying sackcloth on top to prevent soiling of the clothing being worn. This action reflects fastidious humility.
Will you call: Heb. qara, Qal impf., 2p-ms, to call, proclaim, read. this: Heb. zeh, pronoun. a fast: Heb. tsom. and: Heb. vav, conj. an acceptable: Heb. ratson, goodwill, favor, acceptance, will. day: Heb. yom. to: Heb. lamed, prep., "with regard to." ADONAI: Heb. YHVH. Yod-Heh-Vav-Heh (%&%*) is the personal name of the God of Israel (Ex 3:15; 2Chr 14:11; Isa 42:8). The sacred name is rendered LORD in small caps in Christian versions. "LORD" is a substitution for YHVH, not a translation. The presumed root of the name is hava, which means "to be" or "being" or "to become."
Thus YHVH may mean "the one bringing into being, life-giver," or simply "I am," which may refer to His uncreated eternal self-existence (BDB 217). He did not evolve into existence (Ex 3:14-15). YHVH is frequently described as the "living God" (Deut 5:26; Dan 6:20, 26) to contrast with the lifeless idols of pagan religions. YHVH is echad, one (Deut 6:4), or more literally "the only one." The deities represented by idols do not exist (Isa 43:10-11). The importance of the name YHVH to Israel cannot be overstated. YHVH has a direct connection with the covenant and promises to Israel (Deut 4:14; 7:9), His chosen people to whom He revealed His name.
The actual pronunciation of YHVH is unknown. In post-biblical times Jews interpreted the warning of Leviticus 24:16 against blaspheming the Name as including pronunciation and substituted Adonai (Lord) or even HaShem (the Name) in synagogue readings. The scribes who produced the Masoretic Text assigned vowel pointing for Adonai, and actual writing resulted in YaHoVaH (rendered as "Jehovah" in several verses in the KJV). See my article The Blessed Name for more discussion on this subject.
The verse accuses the complainers of having ritualized the whole exercise of Yom Kippur into the bowed head, sackcloth and ashes (Motyer). God is not impressed. Instead in the remainder of the chapter God gives a new meaning to fasting when He defines it as sharing one's food and clothing with those in need and ending oppression of workers. In other words, self-denial should result in transfer of the denied benefit to others in need.
BDB: The New Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon. Oxford University Press, 1907. Reprinted by Associated Publishers and Authors, Inc., 1981. Online at BibleHub.com.
Clarke: Adam Clarke (1762–1832), Commentary on the Holy Bible. 6 vols. J. Emory and B. Waugh, 1831. Online.
Gill: John Gill (1697-1771), Exposition of the Entire Bible. Online. Gill was a life-long Hebrew scholar, and quotes from many rabbinical sources in his commentary.
Delitzsch: Franz Delitzsch (1813-1890), Isaiah. Commentary on the Old Testament (C.F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, 1866-1891), Vol. 7. Hendrickson Publishers, 2006.
Ellicott: Charles John Ellicott (1819–1905), Commentary for English Readers (1878). Online.
Lumby: J. Rawson Lumby, Acts, The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge University Press, 1891. Online.
Maimonides: Moses Maimonides (1138-1204), A Guide for the Perplexed. 4th ed. trans. Michael Friedlaender. E.P. Dutton & Co., 1910. Online.
Motyer: J. Alec Motyer, The Prophecy of Isaiah: An Introduction and Commentary. InterVarsity Press, 1993.
NIBD: Nelson's Illustrated Dictionary of the Bible. Herbert Lockyer, ed. Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1986.
Santala: Risto Santala, The Messiah in the Old Testament in the Light of Rabbinical Writings. Keren Ahvah Meshihit, 1980, 1992. Online.
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