Second Peter

Chapter 2

Blaine Robison, M.A.

 Published 14 February 2018 (in progress)

Chapter 1 | 3 |


Scripture Text: The Scripture text of Second Peter used in this commentary is prepared by Blaine Robison and based on the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament. The essentially literal translation seeks to reflect the Jewish character of the author and writing. See my web article The Jewish New Testament. Other Scripture quotations may be taken from published versions. Click here for Abbreviations of Bible Versions.

Sources: Bibliographic data for works cited may be found at the end of the chapter commentary. Works without page numbers are cited ad loc. Unless otherwise indicated references to the Talmud are from the Soncino Babylonian Talmud (1948); available online at Click here for Talmud Abbreviations.

Syntax: Unless otherwise indicated the meaning of Greek words is from F.W. Danker, The Concise Greek–English Lexicon of the New Testament (2009). See the Greek Guide for the meaning of grammar abbreviations. Definitions of Hebrew words are from The New Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (1981), given as "BDB."  The numbering system of the Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible is identified with "SH" (Strong's Hebrew number) and "SG" (Strong's Greek number). Strong's Online.

Terminology: In order to emphasize the Jewish nature of the apostolic canon and its central figure I use the terms Yeshua (Jesus), Messiah (Christ), Tanakh (Old Testament), and Besekh (New Testament). The abbreviation LXX stands for the Septuagint, the Jewish translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, which was in use among Jews by the mid-2nd century B.C. The LXX with English translation may be found here.

See the General Introduction to the Letters of Peter, and introduction to Second Peter for background information on this letter.

Chapter Outline:

Danger of False Prophets, 2:1-3

Danger of Evil Desires, 2:4-10a

Danger of Balaam, 2:10b-16

Danger of Arrogance, 2:17-22

Danger of False Prophets, 2:1-3

1 But false prophets also came to be among the people, as also false teachers will be among you, who will secretly introduce heresies of destruction, denying even the Master having bought them, bringing on themselves swift destruction.

But: Grk. de, conj. used to indicate (1) a contrast to a preceding statement or thought, "but;" (2) a transition in presentation of subject matter, "now, then;" or (3) a connecting particle to continue a thought, "and, also," sometimes with emphasis, "indeed," "moreover" (Thayer). The first meaning applies here to offer a contrast to the end of the previous chapter. false prophets: pl. of Grk. pseudoprophētēs (from pseudēs, "false" and prophētēs, "prophet"), one who falsely claims to have divine credentials for service as a prophet, with or without the implication of offering incorrect information.

There is no specific Hebrew word in the Tanakh that means "false prophet" (Greenwald 445). In the LXX pseudoprophētēs occurs ten times in passages where Heb. nabi (SH-5030, prophet or spokesman) is found to clarify that prophets being mentioned did not speak for God (Jer 26:7, 8, 11, 16; 28:1; 29:1; Zech 13:2), but sometimes specifically described as speaking sheqer (SH-8267), deception, falsehood or a lie (Jer 6:13; 27:9; 29:8). The term does not occur in earlier Greek literature, but does occur in Josephus (Ant. VIII, 13:1; X, 7:2-3; Wars VI, 5:2), Philo (Special Laws IV §51) and Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs (Test. Judah 4:21).

False prophesying has two elements identified in Scripture, although they do not always occur together. First, the forth-telling of false prophets may counsel abandonment of the God of Israel, in particular, or more generally to disobey God's commandments (Deut 13:1-3). They often engage in reprehensible conduct themselves, such as immorality or divination (Jer 23:14; Acts 8:9-24; 13:6-12). Second, the foretelling of false prophets may announce predictions that do not come to pass (Deut 18:22; Jer 23:25) or deny predictions that biblical prophets have made (Jer 20:6; 2Chr 18:5; John 7:40-43). False prophets sometimes claim dreams or visions or the bold declaration that "God told me" as the authority for their pronouncements (cf. Jer 14:14; 23:32; Lam 2:14; Ezek 13:7, 9, 23; 13:7-9; 21:29; 22:28; 27:15; Zech 10:2; Col 2:18).

False prophets have a significant role in Israel's history. The ten spies who gave a bad report concerning Canaan could be considered false prophets because they predicted defeat for Israel (Num 13:4-15, 25-33). The next false prophet was Balaam, a sorcerer from Mesopotamia (Num 22:5). Peter specifically mentions him in verses 15-16 below. During the time of the divided kingdoms Elijah contended with 450 prophets of Baal and 400 prophets of the Asherah (1Kgs 18:19). Most significant is that during the ministry of Jeremiah, who counseled surrender to Babylon to avoid destruction, the false prophets counseled opposition to Babylon and assured the people that no misfortune would befall the nation (Jer 5:12-13; 6:13-14; 14:13-16; 23:16-20; 27:9-11). Among those was Hananiah who prophesied that God was going to return the temple vessels stolen by Nebuchadnezzar and bring back the exiles within two years (Jer 28:1-4).

Yeshua warned his disciples of false prophets (Matt 7:15-16; 24:11). In the Besekh there is the false prophet Bar-Yeshua with whom Paul contended (Acts 13:6) and John was given a vision of a false prophet who will serve the Beast in the last days (Rev 16:13; 19:20). Paul advised the Corinthian disciples to "pass judgment" on anyone who prophesies (1Cor 14:29). John instructed disciples to "test the spirits" (1Jn 4:1), i.e., evaluate carefully anyone who claims to speak for God. In modern times many individuals have made specific predictions of the Second Coming. These persons are false prophets.

also: Grk. kai, conj. that marks a connection or addition. Kai has three basic uses: (1) continuative – and, also, even; (2) adversative – and yet, but, however; or (3) intensive – certainly, indeed, in fact, really, verily, yea (DM 250f). The first use applies here. Kai is used in the LXX to translate the vav (ו) character added to words for conjunctive effect. There are over 50 conjunctions in biblical Greek, but kai is by far the most common in the Besekh, occurring over 9,000 times (BibleHub). The excessive use of conjunctions is evidence of either an original Hebrew text or Jewish Greek. See my note on the significance of conjunctions in the Besekh.

came to be: Grk. ginomai, aor. mid., to transfer from one state or condition to another, which may be expressed in one of three ways: (1) come into being birth or natural process; be born or produced; (2) exist through application of will or effort by a person; be made, be performed; or (3) undergo a state of existence, change or development; come to be, become, take place, happen, occur, arise, be, appear, come, arrive. The third meaning applies here. among: Grk. en, prep. generally used to mark position with the root meaning of "within," and may be rendered "in, on, at, among, or within" as appropriate to the context (DM 105).

the people: Grk. laos, a group of humans, understood geographically or ethnically, and often viewed in contrast with the ruling class. In Jewish culture the term corresponded to the Heb. am-ha'aretz, "people of the land," i.e., the people of Israel. Peter is expressing a historical perspective here. as: Grk. hōs, adv. with the primary function of connecting narrative components; used here with focus on the idea of a pattern or model. also: Grk. kai.

false teachers: pl. of Grk. pseudodidaskalos (from pseudēs, false and didaskalos, teacher), one who claims the post of a teacher but without (divine) credentials; false teacher or a teacher of false things. The term occurs only here in the Besekh. The noun also does not occur in any earlier Greek or Jewish literature, so Peter apparently coined the term. Since didaskalos is sometimes used interchangeably with Grk. rhabbi (Matt 23:8; John 1:38; 3:2), then in a Jewish context the noun could mean "false rabbi." Peter could intend the term "false teacher" to be a synonym of "false prophet." will be: Grk. eimi, fut. mid., a function word used primarily to declare a state of existence, whether in the past ('was, were'), present ('are, is') or future ('will be'), often to unite a subject and predicate (BAG). The future tense here has the immediate rather than distant future in mind.

among: Grk. en. you: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. The plural pronoun refers to the Messianic congregations Peter is addressing (1Pet 1:1; 2Pet 3:1). who: pl. of Grk. hostis, relative pronoun used here to give specific reference to the preceding verb. will introduce: Grk. pareisagō, fut., introduce alongside, bring in. The verb occurs only here in the Besekh. Thayer and Mounce add that the verb here has the connotation of stealth. heresies: pl. of Grk. hairesis, a strong, distinctive opinion, a religious or philosophical sect, discord or contention. The noun is used in the Besekh of individual parties or sects that operated within Judaism (HELPS).

of destruction: Grk. apōleia, the central sense is 'destruction' and is used (1) of extravagant expenditure; waste, loss; (2) of terrible loss one experiences; ruin, destruction, frequently with stress on its eternal aspect; and (3) of divisive teaching that is destructive. The third meaning applies here. The phrase "heresies of destruction" is a Hebraism, which shows that while Peter was writing in Greek, he was thinking in Hebrew (Fruchtenbaum 403). Blum says that "destructive heresies" are teachings that lead to darkness and damnation. Paul similarly declared,

"For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but wanting to have their ears tickled, they will accumulate for themselves teachers in accordance to their own desires, and will turn away their ears from the truth and will turn aside to myths" (2Tim 4:3-4 NASB).

denying: Grk. arneomai, pres. mid. part., to give a negative answer; say no, deny. Denial is the content of the heresy and Peter then defines the scope of the denial. even: Grk. kai. the Master: Grk. despotēs, lord, master or ruler and refers to one who possesses superiority and exercises absolute authority. The term originally applied to the master of a household and a master in contrast to a slave and then later to political authority. Despotēs occurs only ten times in the Besekh, four of which refer to humans, and the rest of deity. Here the term refers to Yeshua as in the parallel in Jude 4 (Blum; Greenwald 445).

 Despotēs occurs about 60 times in the LXX (DNTT 2:509), and translates three different Hebrew words: (1) Heb. Adonai (SH-136), Lord, a title of God, first in Genesis 15:2; (2) Heb. adôn (SH-113), lord, master, Isaiah 1:24; and (3) Heb. mashal (SH-4910), to rule, reign, have dominion, Proverbs 6:7. Despotēs occurs without Hebrew equivalent in several passages to describe either Elohim or YHVH (Job 5:8; Prov 29:25; 30:9; Jer 15:11; Dan 9:8; 15-16, 19; Jon 4:3). The use of despotēs in reference to God, including the Apocrypha (Wis. 6:7; 8:3; Sir. 23:1; 31:24; 33:1), particularly emphasizes His omnipotence and sovereign control over all things.

having bought: Grk. agorazō, aor. part., to buy or purchase, in regard to a commercial transaction. The verb stresses transfer of ownership and becoming another's property (HELPS). In this context the verb denotes spiritual redemption, but not in the sense of "buying back," but offering a sacrifice in order to secure possession. them: pl. of Grk. autos, personal pronoun used to distinguish a person or thing from or contrast it with another, or to give him (it) emphatic prominence. The pronoun may mean (1) self, (2) he, she, it, them, their, or (3) the same. The second meaning applies here (Thayer). The focal point of the "destructive heresy" had to do with the Messiah Yeshua, in effect denying what he had done for them. The phrase "having bought them" presents a conundrum for commentators.

Was Peter referring to Jews who were disciples like Judas and then denied him, or Jews like the adversarial Judeans who constantly opposed Yeshua? In either case Yeshua had provided atonement for all Israel at the price of his blood (Matt 10:6; 15:24; Luke 1:68; 24:21; Acts 5:31; 13:23). Advocates of eternal security prefer the second interpretation. Blum comments that just because Yeshua had paid the price for their redemption does not mean the false teachers had been saved. However, the verb "denying" would suggest an allusion to Judas. There were members of the Body of Messiah in the apostolic era who turned away from the Lord (1Tim 6:21; 1Jn 2:21) and specific individuals are named: Ananias and Sapphira (Acts 5:1-5), Phygelus and Hermogenes (2Tim 1:16), Hymenaeus and Philetus (2Tim 2:16-18), and Demas (2Tim 4:10). Paul warned that some will fall away from faithfulness to their Lord and embrace heresies (1Tim 4:1-3).

bringing on: Grk. epagō, pres. part., bring on or upon, with the focus on something bad. themselves: pl. of Grk. heautou, reflexive pronoun of the third person to denote that the agent and the person acted on are the same. swift: Grk. tachinos, adj., happening within a brief time; imminent, soon, swift. This word group can refer to events prophesied to happen in the near future, but more commonly indicates the rapidity of execution. In other words tachinos refers more to how long events take to be completed once started than how long until they begin. destruction: Grk. apōleia. Paul warned about the destruction awaiting those who turn away from the Lord.

"For if we keep on sinning willfully after we have received the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins, 27 but only a terrifying expectation of judgment and a fury of fire about to devour the enemies of God. 28 Anyone who rejected the Torah of Moses dies without compassion on the word of two or three witnesses. 29 How much more severe do you think the punishment will be for the one who has trampled Ben-Elohim [Son of God] underfoot, and has regarded as unholy the blood of the covenant by which he was made holy, and has insulted the Spirit of grace? 30 For we know the One who said, 'Vengeance is Mine; I will repay,' and again, 'ADONAI will judge His people.' 31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God. … 39 But we are not among the timid ones on the path to destruction." (Heb 10:26-31, 39 TLV)

Peter could be alluding to Simon the sorcerer whom he encountered in Samaria (Acts 8:9). Simon believed in Yeshua as the Messiah expected by the Samaritans (John 4:45) and was immersed, but then he sought to buy the power of the Holy Spirit with money (Acts 8:18-19). Peter rebuked him by informing him that he had no part in the Kingdom of God and calling upon him to repent (Acts 8:21-23). Simon the sorcerer is known in church tradition as Simon Magus (Church History, Book II, 1:10-12). Later Simon Magus traveled from Samaria to other lands spreading his antagonism against the Messianic faith and eventually arrived in Rome where he became a cult leader (Church History, II, 1:10-12; 13:1-8; 14:1-5; Edmundson 50ff). Peter sought to prevent Simon from deceiving disciples.

2 And many will imitate their sensuality, because of whom the way of the truth will be slandered.

Peter proceeds to lay three charges against the false teachers in the previous verse. And: Grk. kai, conj. many: pl. of Grk. polus, adj., extensive in scope, which may relate to (1) number; many, much, numerous; or (2) high degree of quantity or quality; extensive, great, large, many, much, plentiful. The first meaning applies here. will imitate: Grk. exakoloutheō, fut., properly, completely follow, i.e. closely imitating or emulating someone as a model or leader (HELPS). their: pl. of Grk. autos, personal pronoun. sensuality: Grk. aselgeia, wanton disregard for social or moral standards, self-abandonment, licentiousness. BAG adds debauchery and sensuality. Rienecker says that the word contains the idea of sheer self-indulgence, and describes one who is lost to shame, who acknowledges no restraints, and who dares whatever his caprice and wanton petulance may suggest (2:33).

The first charge is that the false teachers will seduce others into the same immoral lifestyle. The accusation is similar to the charge made against heretical groups that rejected the decision of the apostolic leaders who prohibited eating meat offered to idols and engaging in immorality (Acts 15:28-29), such as the false teacher "Jezebel" in Thyatira (Rev 2:20), and the Nicolaitans in Ephesus and Pergamum (Rev 2:6, 14-15). These cities were in the areas that received Peter's letter.

because of: Grk. dia, prep., lit. "through," but here signifying a causal function. whom: pl. of Grk. hos, relative pronoun used to give significance to the mention of a person, thing, or piece of information that precedes; who, which, what, that.. the way: Grk. hodos, with the focus on the concept of going the word typically has the sense of a route for traveling, hence a way, a road or a highway. It can also refer to the act of traveling; journey, way, trip. Then, hodos is used fig. of conduct or a manner of life (cf. Deut 11:28; Ps 1:6; 1Cor 12:31; Jas 1:8). The LXX uses hodos to translate Heb. derek (way, road, journey).

of the truth: Grk. alētheia may mean (1) truthfulness, dependability, uprightness in thought and deed, (2) truth as opposed to what is false, or (3) reality as opposed to mere appearance (BAG). Danker has "that which is really so." In the LXX alētheia regularly translates the Heb. emet ("firmness, faithfulness, truth," BDB 54), although Christian Bibles sometimes render it as "truth" and sometimes as "faithfulness" (DNTT 3:877). Emet is often used for truthfulness in God and piety in man. will be slandered: Grk. blasphēmeō, fut. pass., to cause damage to reputation by arrogant speech or action; slander, revile, malign, vilify, defame. The second charge is that the false teachers will seek to discredit to the way of Messiah.

3 And in covetousness and deceptive words they will exploit you: for whom the long ago condemnation will not be delayed, and their destruction does not slumber.

And: Grk. kai, conj. in: Grk. en, prep. covetousness: Grk. pleonexia, a motivating force for gaining something beyond an acceptable standard, thus greed or avarice. and deceptive: Grk. plastos, adj., shaped or formed with the dominant component being deception; fabricated, forged. The adjective occurs only here in the Besekh. words: pl. of Grk. logos, a vocalized expression, and may be rendered as word, discourse, statement, message or speech. In the LXX logos stands principally for Heb. dabar, which has a range of meaning "speech, word, report, command, advice, counsel, thing, matter" (Gen 29:13; BDB 182) (DNTT 3:1087).

they will exploit: Grk. emporeuomai, fut. mid., 3p-pl., to engage in business with the connotation of unethical conduct; exploit. you: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. The third charge is that the false teachers will seek to profit monetarily from their deceptive teaching and practices. for whom: Grk. hos, relative pronoun. the long ago: Grk. ekpalai, adv., long ago, from of old, long since. condemnation: Grk. krima may refer to a judicial decision, decree or verdict, or a sentence of condemnation and the subsequent punishment itself. The term is used here of the judgment of God.

will not: Grk. ou, adv., a particle used in an unqualified denial or negation; not. be delayed: Grk. argeō, pres., to be idle, to be motionless, to delay. The present tense depicts an action purposed. The verb occurs only here in the Besekh. This description is from God's perspective who is not governed by time. and: Grk. kai. their: pl. of Grk. autos, personal pronoun. destruction: Grk. apōleia. See verse 1 above. does not: Grk. ou. slumber: Grk. nustazō, pres., be in a drowsy or sleep condition, to nod in sleep, to fall asleep. The last clause may be an understated humor. Just because God hasn't already destroyed the wicked does not mean He has gone to sleep.

Danger of Evil Desires, 2:4-10a

4 For if God spared not angels having sinned, but having cast down to Tartarus he delivered them to chains of darkness, to be kept until judgment;

Peter begins a lengthy sentence, a sort of rhetorical argument, that concludes in verse 10, reminiscent of long complex sentences of Paul in Romans. Verses 4–8 form the protasis or grounds for the argument and verses 9-10a serves as the apodosis or conclusion to the argument.

For: Grk. gar, conj., conj. a contraction of ge ("yet") and ara ("then"), and in a broad sense means "certainly it follows that; for." The conjunction has four uses: (1) explanatory, (2) expressive of astonishment, (3) causal and, (4) inferential. The fourth use is intended here. if: Grk. ei, conj., a contingency marker used to introduce a circumstance or assumption considered factual or valid for the sake of argument. God: Grk. theos, God or god, as indicated in the context. While theos is used occasionally in the Besekh for pagan deities (e.g.,  Acts 28:6; 1Cor 8:5), theos is used overwhelmingly for the omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, Creator and ruler of the universe as described in Scripture (Gen 1─3; John 1:1-3; Rom 1:25).

In the LXX theos primarily renders the name of the Creator God Elohim (2568 times), but sometimes YHVH (300 times) (DNTT 2:67-70). Given the plural nature of Elohim the full triunity of God must be represented in theos. The only God in existence is the God who created the heavens and the earth out of nothing (Gen 1:1) and who chose Israel out of all the nations on the earth for a covenantal relationship (Ex 19:5; Isa 44:6; 45:5-6; 46:9). The God of Israel is the only God there is. The deities of all other religions and cults are the product of Satan-inspired imagination.

spared: Grk. pheidomai, aor. mid., have hesitation about doing something that affects adversely; spare. not: Grk. ou, adv. See the previous verse. angels: pl. of Grk. angelos means one sent, a messenger, whether human or celestial (BAG). In the LXX angelos renders Heb. malak (pl. malakim), which means messenger, representative, courier or angel (DNTT 1:101f). The decision to translate malak or angelos as "angel" relies primarily on the context. See my web article on angels, The Host of Heaven. having sinned: Grk. hamartanō, aor. part., cause to be alongside instead of on target, to miss and in a moral sense to do wrong. The verb is used of offenses against the moral law of God as defined in the Torah. BAG defines the verb as to transgress or sin against divinity, custom or law.

The sin of which Peter speaks may be parallel to the statement in Jude 1:6 of angels that "left their own habitation." Of interest is that in the book of Job the sin of some of the angels is alluded to in a demonic visitation to Eliphaz in which a spirit says, "against His angels He charges error" (Job 4:18). The "error" likely refers to when the "sons of God" (a term for angels in heaven) mated with the "daughters of men" (Gen 6:1-6). Their mating produced unusual offspring called Nephilim (lit. "fallen ones"). The sinning of the angels may have led to the great war in heaven that resulted in Satan and a third of the angels being expelled from heaven to the earth (Rev 12:4, 7-9).

but: Grk. alla, conj., adversative particle used adverbially to convey a different viewpoint for consideration; but, on the other hand. having cast down to Tartarus: Grk. tartaroō, aor. part., cause to be confined in Tartarus, held by many in the ancient world to be a place of torment. In Greek mythology, Tartarus was a "place of punishment under the earth, to which, for example, the Titans were sent" (Thayer). The verb occurs in 1Enoch 20:2 in connection with fallen angels. he delivered: Grk. paradidōmi, aor., to convey from one position to another, in general "to hand over," particularly in reference to subjecting to arrest and a judicial process. to chains: pl. of seira, a chain used for binding. The noun occurs only here in the Besekh.

of utter darkness: Grk. zophos, gloom, darkness, especially infernal darkness. HELPS says the term refers to darkness so dense and foreboding it is "felt." This kind of darkness brings indescribable despair, such as the "outer darkness" mentioned by Yeshua (cf. Matt 8:12; 22:13; 25:30). to be kept: Grk. tēreō, pres. pass. part., may mean (1) to maintain in a secure state with a focus on personal interest or obligation; keep; or (2) to be in compliance in regard to instruction; keep, observe. The first meaning applies here. The fallen angels are presently in confinement. until: Grk. eis, prep. that focuses on entrance, whether in reference to a place or period of time and frequently in relation to direction and limit; into, to, towards, for, until.

judgment: Grk. krisis is used primarily to mean scrutiny of conduct, either evaluation or procedure, mostly in a legal sense; judgment. The noun is also used of a local court responsible for administration of justice; of saving help; and of responsible or right decision. In the LXX krisis renders primarily Heb. mishpat (SH-4941), judgment (e.g., Gen 18:19, 25; Ex 15:25; 23:6; Lev 19:15, 35; Num 35:12; Deut 1:17; 4:5), which most often refers to the act of deciding a case, the decision itself, or the execution of the judgment. In this verse "judgment" alludes to the "judgment of the great day" (Jude 1:6).

Works Cited

BAG: Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. trans. W.F. Arndt & F.W. Gingrich. The University of Chicago Press, 1957.

BDB: The New Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon. London: Oxford University Press, 1907. Reprinted by Associated Publishers and Authors, Inc., 1981. Online.

Blum: Edwin A. Blum, 1 & 2 Peter. Zondervan Corp., 1989-1999. Expositor's Bible Commentary, Vol. 12, Software version 2.6.

DM: H.E. Dana & Julius R. Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament. The Macmillan Co., 1955.

Danker: F.W. Danker, The Concise Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, University of Chicago Press, 2009.

DNTT: Dictionary of New Testament Theology. 3 Vols., ed. Colin Brown. Zondervan Publishing House, 1975.

Edmundson: Charles Edmundson, The Church in Rome in the First Century. Longmans, Green and Co., 1913. Online.

Fruchtenbaum: Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, Ariel's Bible Commentary: The Messianic Jewish Epistles. Ariel Ministries, 2005.

Gill: John Gill (1697-1771), Exposition of the Entire Bible. Online.

Green: Michael Green, 2 Peter and Jude. IVP Academic, 1987. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries, Vol. 18.

Jastrow: Marcus Jastrow, Dictionary of Targumim, Talmud and Midrashic Literature. G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1903, 1926. Online.

Metzger: Bruce Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. 2nd ed. United Bible Societies, 1994.

Mounce: William D. Mounce, Mounce Concise Greek-English Dictionary of the New Testament. 2011. Online.

Rienecker: Fritz Rienecker, A Linguistic Key to the Greek New Testament, Vol. 2. Zondervan Pub. House, 1980.

Robertson: Archibald Thomas Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament, 6 Vols. Broadman Press, 1933. (Parsons CD-ROM Version 2.0, 1997)

Stern: David Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary. Jewish New Testament Publications, 1996.

Thayer: Joseph Henry Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. Harper Brothers, 1889. online.

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