Blaine Robison, M.A.
Published 22 May 2018 (in progress)
Scripture Text: The Scripture text used in this commentary is prepared by Blaine Robison and based on the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament. The essentially literal translation seeks to reflect the Jewish character of the author and writing. See my web article The Jewish New Testament. Scripture quotations may be taken from different versions. Click here for abbreviations of Bible versions. Quotations marked with the initials "BR" indicate the translation of the commentary author.
Sources: Bibliographic data for works cited may be found at the end of the chapter commentary. Works without page numbers are cited ad loc. Important Jewish sources include the following:
● DSS: Citations marked as "DSS" are from the Dead Sea Scrolls, a collection of Jewish manuscripts of Scripture and sectarian documents found in the Qumran caves. Most of the Qumran MSS belong to the last two centuries B.C. and the first century A.D. Online. Click here for DSS abbreviations.
● LXX: The abbreviation "LXX" ("70") stands for the Septuagint, the Jewish translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, which was in use among Jews by the mid-2nd century B.C.
● Josephus: Citations for Josephus, the first century Jewish historian (Yosef ben Matityahu), are from The Works of Flavius Josephus (c. 75–99 A.D.) trans. William Whiston (1737). Online.
Syntax: Unless otherwise noted the meaning of Greek words is from F.W. Danker, The Concise Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (2009), and the meaning of Hebrew words is from The New Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (1981), abbreviated as "BDB." See the Greek Guide for the meaning of grammar abbreviations. The numbering system of the Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible is identified with "SH" (Strong's Hebrew number) and "SG" (Strong's Greek number). Strong's Online.
Terminology: In order to emphasize the Jewish nature of the apostolic canon and its central figure I use the terms Tanakh (Old Testament), Besekh (New Testament), Yeshua (Jesus), and Messiah (Christ). I use the title "The Book of Matthew" because that is how Matthew introduces his story (Matt 1:1).
See the article Witnesses of the Good News for background information on Matthew and his book.
Date: Nisan 12, A.D. 30 (Tuesday)
Chapter 23 continues the narrative of the last days of Yeshua prior to his crucifixion. See my article The Final Days of Yeshua for a chronology of Yeshua's last week. In this chapter Yeshua offers a serious critique and rebuke of the weaknesses and faults of Judean leaders identified as "scribes and Pharisees." NIBD titles this chapter in its outline of Matthew as "The King Rejects the Nation" (687), a complete misrepresentation of Yeshua's instruction. Yeshua never rejected Israel (cf. Rom 11:1-2). Christianity has nurtured this lie for centuries. However, like the Hebrew prophets of old Yeshua reveals the dark side of Phariseeism so that his disciples will understand the true way of pleasing God.
Pharisee Deficiencies, 23:1-12
Eight Woes on Hypocrites, 23:13-33
Judgment Announced, 23:34-39
Pharisee Deficiencies, 23:1-12
1 Then Yeshua spoke to the crowds and to his disciples,
Then: Grk. tote, adv., temporal adv. that focuses on a time or circumstance that is closely associated with what precedes in the narrative; at that time, then, thereupon. Yeshua: Grk. Iēsous, a transliteration of the Hebrew name Yeshua ("Jesus" in Christian Bibles). Yeshua is a contraction of the Hebrew name Y’hoshua ("Joshua"), which means "YHVH [the LORD] is salvation" (BDB 221). The meaning of his name is explained to Joseph by an angel of the Lord, "You shall call his name Yeshua, for he will save his people from their sins" (Matt 1:21). The English rendering of "Jesus" originated with the Mace New Testament in 1729. For more information on the meaning our Lord's name, his identity, and the history of translation of the name see my web article Who is Yeshua?
spoke: Grk. laleō, aor., is used in the Besekh primarily to mean making an oral statement and to exercise the faculty of speech; assert, proclaim, report, say, speak, talk about, utter. to the crowds: pl. of Grk. ochlos, an aggregate of people or an assembled company of people; crowd, multitude, great number. In many passages the term is equivalent to the Heb. am ha–aretz ("people of the land") as contrasted with the ruling classes and religious elite who despised as ignorant masses accursed for not knowing and keeping Torah (John 7:49) (DNTT 2:800f). Rabbinic snobbery and discriminatory treatment of ordinary people may be seen in these Talmud passages.
"Our Rabbis taught: Who is an Am ha-arez? Whoever does not recite the Shema' morning and evening with its accompanying benedictions; such is the statement of R. Meir. The Sages say: Whoever does not put on the phylacteries. Ben Azzai says: Whoever has not the fringe upon his garment. R. Jonathan b. Joseph says: Whoever has sons and does not rear them to study Torah. Others say: Even if he learnt Scripture and Mishnah but did not attend upon Rabbinical scholars, he is an Am ha-arez. If he learnt Scripture but not Mishnah, he is a boor; if he learnt neither Scripture nor Mishnah, concerning him Scripture declares, I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man and with the seed of beast." (Sotah 22a)
"Our Rabbis taught: Let a man always sell all he has and marry the daughter of a scholar. … but let him not marry the daughter of an am ha-arez, because they are detestable and their wives are vermin, and of their daughters it is said, Cursed be he that lieth with any manner of beast. … R. Eleazar said: An am ha-arez, it is permitted to stab him [even] on the Day of Atonement which falls on the Sabbath. … R. Hiyya taught: Whoever studies the Torah in front of an am ha-arez, is as though he cohabited with his betrothed in his presence. … Our Rabbis taught: Six things were said of the amme ha-aretz: We do not commit testimony to them; we do not accept testimony from them; we do not reveal a secret to them; we do not appoint them as guardians for orphans; we do not appoint them stewards over charity funds; and we must not join their company on the road. Some say, We do not proclaim their losses too [i.e., return their lost property]." (Pesachim 49b)
and: Grk. kai, conj. that marks a connection or addition. Kai has three basic uses: (1) continuative – and, also, even; (2) adversative – and yet, but, however; or (3) intensive – certainly, indeed, in fact, really, verily, yea (DM 250f). The first use applies here. Kai is used in the LXX to translate the vav (ו) character added to words for conjunctive effect. There are over 50 conjunctions in biblical Greek, but kai is by far the most common in the Besekh, occurring over 9,000 times (BibleHub). The excessive use of conjunctions is evidence of either an original Hebrew text or Jewish Greek. See my note on the significance of conjunctions in the Besekh.
to his: Grk. autos, personal pronoun used to distinguish a person or thing from or contrast it with another, or to give him (it) emphatic prominence. The pronoun may mean (1) self, (2) he, she, it, or (3) the same. The second meaning applies here (Thayer). disciples: pl. of Grk. mathētēs, (from manthanō, to learn), m. pl., one who learns through instruction from a teacher. In the Besekh the noun occurs only in the apostolic narratives and corresponds to the Heb. talmid (SH-8527, scholar or pupil), the student of a Torah scholar (Heb. rabbi). For more background information see the note on John 1:35.
2 saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees have sat down on the seat of Moses,
saying: Grk. legō, pres. part., to make a statement or utterance, whether mentally, orally or in writing, often used to introduce quoted material. The focus of the verb may be declarative, interrogative or imperative; answer, ask, declare, enjoin, order, say, speak, tell, told, refer to, talk about. In the LXX legō renders Heb. amar (SH-559), to utter, say, shew, command or think. The Greek verb "say" functions here as quotation marks for the text following since ancient writings did not contain punctuation. The rest of this verse through verse 39 below constitutes the content of what Yeshua said. This was not a conversation.
The scribes: pl. of Grk. grammateus refers to a specialist in legal matters. In the LXX grammateus renders two Hebrew words, shotêr and more frequently sophêr (DNTT 3:477f). The word shotêr (SH-7860, official; officer, BDB 1009) is initially used of men chosen to be part of the seventy elders (Num 11:16), and then later of other officials (Deut 20:5; 1Chr 23:4). The word sophêr (SH-5608, secretary, scribe, BDB 708) was used for the secretary to a ruler, a prophet or a military officer (2Sam 8:17; Jer 36:4, 18, 32; 37:15), as well as one skilled in Torah laws (Ezra 7:6; Neh 8:1). In the Besekh the term always has its Jewish meaning of one learned in Torah. Scribes were clearly influential. They were secretaries, teachers, lawyers, judges, priests and some were members of the Sanhedrin (Matt 16:21).
Josephus mentions Sadducees who were magistrates (Ant. XVIII, 1:4) and scribes were always preferred for appointment as judges due to their knowledge of the law (Jeremias 237). Some scribes belonged to the party of the Pharisees (Matt 22:34-35; Mark 2:16; Acts 5:34; 23:9) and some were "of the people" (Matt 2:4), suggesting no party affiliation. Jeremias says that the Pharisaic party in the Sanhedrin was composed entirely of scribes (cf. Matt 21:45; Luke 20:19) (236), but that would be expected for members of the Sanhedrin. For more information on the background of scribes in Jewish culture see my commentary on Matthew 2:4.
and: Grk. kai, conj. the Pharisees: pl. of Grk. Pharisaios, a rough transliteration of Heb. P'rushim, meaning "separatists." The title was born of the fact that they devoted themselves to study and observance of the Torah. The Pharisees traced their roots to the Hasidim ("pious ones") organized in the time of Ezra, but are known as an organized group from the 2nd c. BC (Jeremias 247). The first mention of the group is in the books of Maccabees where they are described as "a company of Hasideans, mighty warriors of Israel, every one who offered himself willingly for the law (Torah)" (1Macc 2:42; cf. 1Macc 7:13; 2Macc 14:6). Josephus estimated that there were at least six thousand Pharisees in the Land (Ant. XVII, 2:4). There were several Pharisaic communities in Jerusalem at this time (Jeremias 252).
There were many aspects of Phariseeism with which Yeshua would have agreed. They held the biblical teachings of the Messiah, life after death, resurrection of the dead, immortality, and angels, all of which distinguished them from the Sadducees (Acts 23:8). The Pharisees resisted syncretism and regarded Greek ideas as abominations. The Torah, by Pharisee definition, included both the writings of Moses and the traditions of the Sages, commonly referred to as the Oral Law.
The Pharisees exerted considerable influence in Jewish culture. While the Sadducees controlled the Temple, the synagogue was the center of power for the Pharisees. Mansoor points out that with the Pharisee belief in an omnipresent God worship was not dependent on sacrifices alone and could take place in the synagogue as well as the Temple. They thus fostered the synagogue as a place of worship, study, and prayer, and raised it to a central and important place in the life of the Jewish people, rivaling the Temple. Yet even in the Temple the Pharisees were influential and the Sadducean priests performed the Divine worship, prayers, sacrifices, and various festival customs according to the direction of the Pharisees due to their popularity with the people (Ant. XIII, 10:6; XVIII, 1:3-4).
A casual reader might assume from Yeshua's sharp criticism of Pharisees in this chapter and elsewhere in this book that the Pharisees were all evil. Matthew certainly saw the bad side of Pharisees when he worked as a tax-collector before Yeshua met him. The Pharisees treated tax collectors as sinners (Matt 9:11). For the background of the Pharisaic treatment of tax collectors see my web article The Defamation Against Zacchaeus. Yeshua's social fellowship with tax collectors was one of the reasons that many Pharisees became adversaries. Unfortunately, we know far more about the Pharisee opponents of Yeshua than we do about his supporters among the Pharisees, like Nicodemus (John 3:1-2; 7:50-51), and the unnamed Pharisees who warned Yeshua of a plot by Herod to kill him (Luke 13:31). It was not Yeshua's intention in this discourse to impugn all Pharisees of that time with the same negative judgment.
(For more information on the distinctions between major Jewish parties in the first century see Josephus, Ant., XVIII, 1:1-6; Wars, II, 8:1-14. A lengthy treatment of the Pharisee party, their theology and practices, can be found in Ron Moseley, Yeshua: A Guide to the Real Yeshua and the Original Church; Lederer Books, 1996.)
Noteworthy is that the pairing of scribes and Pharisees occurs 19 times in the apostolic narratives (Matt 5:20; 12:38; 15:1; 23:2, 13, 14, 15, 23, 25, 27, 29; Mark 7:1, 5; Luke 5:21, 30; 6:7; 11:53; 15:2; John 8:3). The pairing suggests that the majority of the scribes were Sadducees or belonged to no party. Moreover, except in this verse all occurrences of "scribes and Pharisees" depict them as hostile toward Yeshua or recipients of Yeshua's criticism. A comparable pairing is "chief priests and Pharisees" (Matt 21:45; 27:62; John 7:32, 45; 11:47, 57; 18:3).
sit: Grk. kathizō, aor., 3p-pl., to sit, to take one's seat. Bible versions have a variety of translations ('are seated,' 'sit,' 'have sat down'), but all emphasize that the aorist tense points to the past as well as the present. (The action of the aorist tense can be depicted as <l>, l>¾ or ¾<l ). The NASB translates the verb as "they have seated themselves," which implies an arbitrary assumption of authority. However, in the Jewish culture of the time authority came by virtue of formal ordination. on: Grk. epi, prep. with the root meaning of "upon," used primarily as a marker of position or location; 'at, in, on, upon, over.' the seat: Grk. kathedra, a place for sitting, a chair or seat. The word occurs only three times in the Besekh; the other two mentions refer to the seats of the moneychangers at the Temple whom Yeshua confronted (Matt 21:12; Mark 11:15).
In the LXX kathedra is used for the seat of a king (1Sam 20:25; 1Kgs 10:19), a special chair in the temple (1Kgs 8:13; 2Kgs 16:18), and the seating of ruling elders (Ps 107:32). Stern associates this seat with a special chair set aside at the front of synagogues based on some late midrashic literature. A picture of the supposed "Moses Seat" may be seen here and here. Contrary to scholarly labeling, the synagogue seats discovered by archaeologists are not engraved with a sign saying "seat of Moses." Moreover, in reference to "scribes and Pharisees" Yeshua can not mean a synagogue seat of honor. A chair is designed for one person, not a group. Yeshua will address the matter of "chief seats" in the synagogue in verse 6 below.
of Moses: Grk. Mōusēs, transliterates Heb. Mosheh, the great Hebrew leader, prophet and lawgiver of Israel born about 1525 BC to Amram and Jochebed (Num 26:59). His life can be easily divided into three 40-year periods, the first being his birth and early life in Egypt, the second his years in Midian, and the third the wilderness period after the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt. Moses was the leader of the Israelites in their journey through the wilderness. At Mount Sinai Moses served as God's spokesman to facilitate the beginning of the covenant relationship between God and Israel. Forty years later on the plains of Moab Moses renewed the covenant with Israel and made preparations for their entry into the promised land. Moses was a heroic leader of the people and a devout man of God.
Yet, due to an act of disobedience to God's instructions Moses was not permitted to enter the land of Canaan with the nation (Num 20:8-12). At the end of his life God allowed Moses to view the land from the top of Mt. Pisgah before his death and there he died at the age of 120. God buried him in the land of Moab (Deut 34:1-7). However, Moses' death was not the end of his importance or influence, because Scripture asserts that Moses compiled, wrote and/or edited the five books attributed to his name (Matt 22:24; Mark 12:19; Luke 16:29; 24:27, 44). Philo (20 BC-50 AD) was the first Jewish scholar to write a definitive biography of Moses (On the Life of Moses I, 4:13). Josephus also wrote much about Moses in his Antiquities of the Jews (Books II, III, and IV). See also my web article Moses and Yeshua.
The description of the scribes and Pharisees being seated in the chair of Moses most likely alludes to the Great Sanhedrin, consisting of seventy-one members derived the Torah narrative of Moses and the seventy elders (Ex 24:1; Num 11:24; Sanhedrin 1:1). The members sat on sat on throne-like chairs in the form of a semi-circle, so that they might see one another (Sanhedrin 4:2). This practice followed the example of Moses who sat to judge the people (Ex 18:13). As a judicial body the Great Sanhedrin originated in the Hasmonean period (c. 200 BC), and the Pharisees came into power during the reign of Queen Salome Alexandra (76 to 67 BC) (Josephus, Wars I, 5:1-2).
The Great Sanhedrin was located in Jerusalem and dealt with religious controversies, such as interpretation of Torah and Temple ritual, oversaw drawing up the calendar and preparation of Torah Scrolls for the king and the Temple. The Great Sanhedrin was the final authority on Jewish law. The Sanhedrin heard appeals from the lower courts and also judged accused lawbreakers. The Court of Seventy-One was the only court that could hear a case involving a tribe, a false prophet and a high priest. For more information on the Sanhedrin see my web article Jewish Jurisprudence.
3 Therefore do and observe all things, however much, they might say to you, but do not according to their works. For they speak, but do not practice.
Therefore: Grk. oun, an inferential conj., which is used here to indicate a conclusion connected with the statement immediately preceding, 'so, therefore, consequently, then.' do: Grk. poieō, aor. imp., 2p-pl., a verb of physical action that may refer to (1) producing something material; make, construct, produce, create; or (2) to be active in bringing about a state of condition, to follow some method in expressing by deeds the feelings and thoughts of the mind; do, act, accomplish, carry-out, execute, perform, practice, work. The second meaning applies here. In the LXX poieō renders chiefly Heb. asah (SH-6213), accomplish, do, make, work (first in Gen 1:7), and used of a wide range of human and divine activity.
and: Grk. kai, conj. observe: Grk. tēreō, pres. imp., 2p-pl., may mean (1) to maintain in a secure state with a focus on personal interest or obligation; keep; or (2) to be in compliance in regard to instruction; keep, observe. The second meaning applies here. The verb has a particular usage in reference to obeying commandments found in the Torah and those proclaimed by Yeshua (Matt 19:17; John 14:15, 21, 23-24; 15:10, 20; Acts 15:5, 24; 1Tim 6:14; Jas 2:10; 1Jn 2:3; 3:22; 5:3; Rev 12:17). all things: pl. of Grk. pas, adj., comprehensive in scope, but without statistical emphasis; all, every. however much: Grk. hosos, correlative pronoun denoting a temporal equation, here signifying maximum inclusion; as many as, how much, how great, how many.
they might say: Grk. legō, aor. subj., 3p-pl. The subjunctive mood, which looks toward what is conceivable or potential, adds a layer of tentativeness to the proposed scenario. Yeshua speaks of a hypothetical situation. to you: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. The pronoun refers back to the audience in verse 1, the crowd and the disciples. The authority of Levitical priests and judges specified in the Torah stands behind the instruction of Yeshua:
"According to the terms of the law which they teach you, and according to the verdict which they tell you, you shall do; you shall not turn aside from the word which they declare to you, to the right or the left." (Deut 17:11 NASB)
Yeshua alludes to ordinary rulings of the Great Sanhedrin on religious matters. Given the long list of offenses which Yeshua goes on to charge against the "hypocrites" then the "doing" and "observing" would be in relation to those pronouncements that don't contradict the actual instruction given by Moses. Yeshua never objected to the routine business of the Great Sanhedrin in representing the Jewish people. Yeshua followed the calendar and the limits of a Sabbath journey established by the Sanhedrin. And, there were times when he directed people to conform their behavior to the expectations of authorities (Matt 8:4; 17:27).
Lightfoot in his comment on this verse makes a good point: "The scribes and Pharisees, the worst of men, have long usurped Moses' seat; nevertheless, we ought to obey them, because by the dispensation of the divine providence, they bear the chief magistracy" (2:290). This is similar to the attitude of David who would not harm King Saul even during his worst days because Saul was the "LORD's anointed" (cf. 1Sam 24:10; 26:11, 23; 2Sam 1:4). Thus, the scribes and Pharisees in their judicial capacity were to be respected. The apostles would never have said to the Judean authorities, "I don't have to follow such and such rule because Yeshua said so." Indeed, the apostles made similar exhortations to respect authority (cf. Rom 13:1; 1Pet 2:13).
but: Grk. de, conj. used to indicate (1) a contrast to a preceding statement or thought, "but;" (2) a transition in presentation of subject matter, "now, then;" or (3) a connecting particle to continue a thought, "and, also," sometimes with emphasis, "indeed," "moreover" (Thayer). The first meaning applies here. do: Grk. poieō, pres. imp., 2p-pl. not: Grk. mē, adv., a particle of qualified negation, subjective in nature, involving will and thought; not. according to: Grk. kata, prep., the root meaning is "down," but with the noun following being in the accusative case and the preposition denoting agreement or conformity to a standard, the resultant meaning is 'according to' (Thayer).
their: pl. of Grk. autos, personal pronoun. works: pl. of Grk. ergon generally means a tangible deed, action or accomplishment that may be observed, whether of men or God. The plural form occurs often in the Besekh, sometimes of evil deeds (Luke 11:48; 1Jn 3:8; Rev 9:20) and sometimes good deeds (Matt 5:11; John 3:21; Jas 2:14). In reference to the scribes and Pharisees in this context "works" has a pejorative meaning, especially their sins and hypocrisies detailed in the rest of this chapter. Yeshua had rebuked the Judean authorities saying, "Has not Moses given you the Torah, and none of you keeps the Torah?" (John 7:19 mine). Yeshua also accused them of invalidating the word of God for the sake of their traditions (Matt 15:6).
For: Grk. gar, conj. a contraction of ge ("yet") and ara ("then"), and in a broad sense means "certainly it follows that; for." The conjunction has four uses: (1) explanatory, (2) expressive of astonishment, (3) causal and, (4) inferential. The first use is intended here. they speak: Grk. legō, pres. but: Grk. kai. do not: Grk. ou, adv., a particle used in an unqualified denial or negation; not. practice: Grk. poieō, pres. In other words, they don't practice what they preach. Yeshua had condemned the hypocrisy of the Pharisees previously (Matt 5:20; 9:10-13; 12:1-7; 15:1-9; 19:3-9) and had warned his disciples to beware the "leaven of the Pharisees" (Matt 16:6, 12).
The opening clause of this verse might seem to give the scribes and Pharisees full authority in all they teach, including the oral tradition, even if they do not live up to it. Then Yeshua qualifies the general expectation of obedience. His direction "to do" but not "to do" might seem like a contradiction, but it reads like a play on words. The second part of the verse is entirely consistent with previous pronouncements of Yeshua in which he challenged the legalism of the Pharisees. He was not expecting unquestioning obedience to Pharisaic traditions. He even made exceptions to Pharisaic legalism for his disciples in variety of situations (Matt 12:1-12; 15:1-2; 19:1-9). In fact, Paul will later inform Messianic disciples not to let anyone "act as your judge in regard to food or drink or in respect to a festival or a new moon or a Sabbath day" (Col 2:16 NASB).
It's important to note that Yeshua did not counsel rebellion against lawful authority, but he expected that the behavior of his disciples would be better than the Pharisees (Matt 5:20). Christian commentators interpret Yeshua's instruction as requiring obedience of the rulings of the scribes and Pharisees in so far as they agree with the written Torah. Such a conclusion implies that hearers have a responsibility to know the Torah in order to be able to evaluate whether the teaching of the scribes and Pharisees conforms to Moses (cf. 1Cor 14:29). Just as the spirits of prophets are subject to prophets (1Cor 14:32), so the spirits of Torah-teachers are subject to Moses, the supreme Torah communicator. The Torah of Moses remains the plumbline by which all definitions of normative behavior are to be measured.
We should also consider that there would be a limited duration for this compliance (cf. John 4:21). Eventually the Romans would end the legal status of the Great Sanhedrin as a judicial body.
4 Moreover, they bind heavy burdens, and hard to bear, and laid on the shoulders of men, but themselves are not willing to move them with their finger.
Moreover: Grk. de, conj. they bind: Grk. desmeuō, pres., 3p-pl., to bind together, to fetter. The verb is used of binding in the sense of restraints, and bundles fastened together for transport, ordinarily by donkey. heavy: pl. of Grk. barus, adj., physically heavy in weight; heavy, weighty, burdensome. burdens: pl. of Grk. phortion (from phortos, 'load, cargo'), something carried as a load, lit. of a ship's cargo. The noun is used in a non-literal sense of a burden which must be carried by the individual, i.e. as something personal and hence is not transferable, i.e. it cannot "be shifted" to someone else (HELPS). and: Grk. kai, conj. hard to bear: Grk. dusbastaktos, adj., problematic, difficult, doubly heavy, describing what is difficult or oppressive to carry because of the weight (HELPS).
and: Grk. kai. laid: Grk. epitithēmi, pres., to put, place or lay upon. on: Grk. epi, pres. the shoulders: pl. of ōmos, the anatomical part of the body in humans, at the top of the trunk, extending from each side of the base of the neck to the region where the arm articulates with the trunk; shoulder. of men: pl. of Grk. anthrōpos, human being, man or mankind. In the LXX anthrōpos renders three Hebrew words: (1) adam, SH-444, used for a human male or generically for man and woman and as a contrast to animals (e.g., Gen 1:26, 27); (2) ish, SH-376, adult male or husband (Gen 2:23, 24) and (3) enosh, SH-582, man or mankind, often signifying the aspect of weakness and mortality (Job 5:17; Ps 8:4-5) (DNTT 2:564). Bible versions are divided between translating the noun as "men" and "people." Pharisaic regulations impacted the entirety of Jewish culture, but.
God had intended Torah commandments to be a blessing, but the Pharisees had turned them into a burden. In contrast Yeshua said "Take my yoke upon you and learn from me … my yoke is easy and my burden is light" (Matt 11:29-30). The yoke of Yeshua is the Torah interpreted as originally intended. but: Grk. de. themselves: pl. of Grk. autos, personal pronoun. Many versions translate the plural pronoun with the redundant "they themselves." are not: Grk. ou, adv. willing: Grk. thelō, pres., to have a desire for something or have a purpose for something; will, wish, desire. to move: Grk. kineō, aor. inf., may mean (1)cause a change in position, move, remove; (2) cause to be in motion, shake; or (3) be in motion, move around. The first meaning applies here. them: pl. of Grk. autos. with their: pl. of Grk. autos. finger: Grk. daktulos, the anatomical extension of the hand.
For example, the Pharisees imposed strict rules for the Sabbath. The fourth commandment enjoined rest on the seventh day (Ex 20:8-11; Deut 5:12-15). In the context of those passages the rest was from work involved in one's livelihood (cf. Num 15:32-36; Neh 13:15-22; Jer 17:21-22). Pharisaic tradition, later represented in the requirements set forth in the Mishnah, prohibited thirty-nine categories of work on the Sabbath.
"The primary labors are forty less one, [viz.:] sowing, plowing, reaping, binding sheaves, threshing, winnowing, selecting, grinding, sifting, kneading, baking, shearing wool, bleaching, hackling, dyeing, spinning, stretching the threads, the making of two meshes, weaving two threads, dividing two threads, tying [knotting] and untying, sewing two stitches, tearing in order to sew two stitches, capturing a deer, slaughtering, or flaying, or salting it, curing its hide, scraping it [of its hair], cutting it up, writing two letters, erasing in order to write two letters [over the erasure], building, pulling down, extinguishing, kindling, striking with a hammer, [and] carrying out from one domain to another: these are the forty primary labors less one." (Shabbath 7:2)
The Pharisees were more focused on what one shouldn't do on the Sabbath, than what should be done (Matt 12:12). (See my article Remember the Sabbath.) So, when Yeshua healed on the Sabbath, the Pharisees labeled him a sinner (John 9:16). Pharisaic regulation clearly went far beyond what God must have intended. God himself works on the Sabbath to preserve all our lives and even the priests worked on the Sabbath without being condemned (Matt 12:5). Yeshua reminded the Pharisees that God established the Sabbath to benefit man (Mark 2:27). He shocked his adversaries by informing them that the "son of man" is lord of the Sabbath. People generally assume that Yeshua was speaking of himself, but "son of man" was a common idiom for "human being." Thus, Yeshua meant that the individual Jew is given authority by God to determine how to keep the Sabbath (cf. Matt 9:8; Col 2:16).
5 And they do all their works in order to be seen by men. For they widen their phylacteries and they enlarge their tassels.
And: Grk. de, conj. they do: Grk. poieō, pres., 3p-pl. See verse 3 above. all: pl. of Grk. pas, adj. See verse 3 above. their: pl. of Grk. autos, personal pronoun. works: pl. of Grk. ergon. See verse 3 above. in order: Grk. pros, prep., lit. "near or facing" (DM 110), used here to express purpose. to be seen: Grk. theaomai, aor. pass. inf., to look upon with special interest; see, look at, behold, take notice of. The verb emphasizes a special perception or realization. The construction "in order to be seen" also occurs in Matthew 6:1. by men: pl. of Grk. anthrōpos. See the previous verse. The Pharisees weren't concerned about impressing women.
For: Grk. gar, conj. they widen: Grk. platunō (from platus, "wide"), pres., to make large, broaden or widen. their: pl. of Grk. autos. phylacteries: pl. of Grk. phulaktērion (from phulassō, "to keep, preserve"), phylactery. In Greek culture phulaktērion originally meant (1) a guarded post, fort, castle, guardrooms, observatories; (2) safeguard, security, preservative, and a protecting charm or amulet; and (3) a guard or chain (LSJ). The Greek term does not occur in the LXX at all, but is found in Josephus in its regular use of a fortified place (Ant. XV, 7:8). Messianic Jewish versions (CJB, MW, OJB and TLV) translate the Greek word as tefillin, which was originally adapted from an Aramaic word (Jastrow 1687). Ironically the word tefillin is not found anywhere in the Hebrew text of the Tanakh.
Tefillin are small, leather cases containing four compartments, each with a key passage of Scripture (Ex 13:1-10, 11-16; Deut 6:4-9, 13-21) (HELPS). See a picture here. Observant Jewish men past bar-mitzvah age (13) strap one on one arm and the other around the head during the morning weekday synagogue service (Stern). Phulaktērion does not translate tefillin, but it might be an attempt to transliterate Heb. t'philatekah the direct object form of tefillah (SH-8605, prayer, intercession, pleading), which occurs four times in the Tanakh (1Kgs 9:3; 2Kgs 20:5; 2Chr 7:12; and Isa 38:5). Since Matthew was originally written in Hebrew we may assume Yeshua used the word tefillin. Yeshua could also have used totaphoth, "frontlets," since that it is the term used in the Torah passages. The person who translated Matthew into Greek probably thought phulaktērion accurately represented Yeshua's description of the religious item and its purpose.
The earliest mention of tefillin is in Targum Onkelos (1st c. A.D.; Deuteronomy) and then Targum Jonathon (2nd c. A.D.; Exodus and Deuteronomy). Josephus does not use the word tefillin but he seems to allude to the practice by repeating the oral tradition of a supposed speech of Moses in which he enjoins the twice daily saying the Shema, inscribing God's blessings on doorposts and bearing upon their arms and foreheads remembrances of God's word (Ant. IV, 8:13). The tefillin were thought to have power, like amulets, to avert various evils and to drive away demons (Targum on Song of Solomon 8:3, dated 400–800 A.D.); hence, their Greek name (Thayer). Greenstone, a Jewish scholar, acknowledges that in their earliest form tefillin resembled amulets.
Phulaktērion does not occur in any rabbinical writings, as a substitute for tefillin, yet articles on tefillin on Jewish websites do use the word "phylactery" as a synonym. Rabbinic regulations concerning the wear of tefillin are found primarily in the tractate Menachot, but also Berachot. Tefillin capsules had to be quadrangular in shape; making the capsules round would expose the wearer to danger (Men. 35a). The Mishnah acknowledges that the regulations of the scribes are stricter than the Torah (Sanhedrin 10:5). The first use of tefillin as they are currently designed is not known with any certainty. The Bible contains no anecdotes of Israelites wearing tefillin. Greenstone says that use of tefillin developed from the custom of wearing protecting coverings on the head and hands. Saul's way of appearing in battle, with a crown on his head and wearing bracelets (2Sam 2:10), is connected with this idea.
Greenstone believes a figure of speech in the Proverbs of binding or tying the commandments about the neck, fingers and heart (Prov 1:9, 3:3, 6:21; 7:3) imply an actual custom of wearing some object, with or without inscription, around the neck or near the heart. These proverbs thus support taking the Torah injunctions literally. However, as with the Torah instructions the proverbial expressions pertain to being obedient to God's commandments. The use of tefillin among Jews was instituted based on an interpretation of Deuteronomy 6:8, "Bind them as a sign on your hand, they are to be as frontlets between your eyes between your eyes" (TLV). The word "frontlets" is Heb. totaphoth (SH-2903), which BDB defines as "bands," "frontlet-bands," and "between the eyes" (377).
The LXX translates this verse as "And you shall fasten them [God's words] for a sign upon your hand, and it shall be immoveable [Grk. asaleutos, adj., unshaken, immovable] before your eyes" (ABP). In context the expectation was in reference to the commandments a father taught his son. This expectation is expressed in the three other passages associated with tefillin. In Exodus 13:9 it relates to instruction by a father to a son explaining the origin of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. In Exodus 13:16 it relates to obeying the regulation for consecrating the firstborn. In Deuteronomy 11:18 it relates to impressing God's words upon the heart. Likewise in those passages the LXX contains no hint of a practice of wearing a religious item resembling tefillin.
Moreover, none of the instructions have anything to do with prayer. In my view the supposed injunctions to wear tefillin in their original Hebrew were clearly metaphorical to remind the Israelites just how thorough the Torah was to impact their lives. Unlike the very explicit commands to write God's commandments on doorposts (Heb. mezuzah; Deut 6:9; 11:20) and affixing tzitziyot to the corners of garments (Num 15:38-39), the four commandments pertaining to the hands and forehead do not say to wrap bands around the arms and wear boxes containing tiny scrolls of Scripture on the forehead. Instead the instructions use comparative prepositions, "as" and "like," essentially meaning that God's word is to be a daily part of one's thinking and doing. In Scripture both righteous deeds and evil deeds are often associated with the hands and the mind (cf. Jas 4:8).
Kasdan suggests that Yeshua prayed with tefillin since he fulfilled all the commandments of the Torah as the sinless Messiah (263). Lightfoot says that it is not unlikely that Yeshua wore tefillin (2:292). Bivin also says Yeshua may have worn phylacteries (51). However, there is no evidence Yeshua used tefillin. The assumption that the sinless Messiah must have used tefillin to maintain his sinless state is faulty reasoning, since the Torah instructions are simply not explicit and the instructions have nothing to do with prayer. The Pharisees already considered Yeshua a sinner, so this "failure" wouldn't make him any more of one. If the wear of tefillin was expected, we would assume that the LXX, translated by Jewish scholars, would have given grammatical support to the idea. However, we should remember that Rabbinic Judaism rejected the LXX as authoritative Scripture.
Yeshua's criticism not only draws attention to the attention-seeking behavior of the Pharisees but their complete failure to fulfill what God actually commanded. Yeshua will go on to enumerate their sins, which no amount of invented religious exercise could atone. Yeshua specifically mentions the wearers of the phylacteries as scribes (=Sadducees) and Pharisees. It is not likely that other Jewish groups used tefillin based on a Talmudic restriction:
"A scroll of the Law, tefillin and mezuzoth written by a min [Yeshua-follower Jew], a Cuthean [Samaritan Jew], a gentile, a slave, a woman, a minor, or an apostate Jew [Hellenistic Jew; Qumran Jew], are invalid" (Menachot 42b).
In the time of Yeshua the wear of tefillin was a practice of the religious elite. Yeshua and his disciples, and certainly the crowds, did not satisfy the membership requirements.
CAVEAT: This analysis is not intended to impugn the Jewish practice of using tefillin, because, after all, it is not prohibited by Scripture. Yeshua only condemned the inordinate pride of the Pharisees, not the practice of tefillin itself. However, intent and motive still matter. If use of tefillin is just a legalistic practice, then it is of no value. Wearing tefillin does not make one righteous. For the observant Jew, including a Messianic Jew, the use of tefillin has value when motivated by a heart of love for God and a commitment to keep the commandments of Torah.
and: Grk. kai, conj. they lengthen: Grk. megalunō, pres., 3p-pl., may mean (1) enlarge, either in size or amount; or (2) cause to gain recognition, aggrandize, celebrate, glorify. The first meaning applies here with a hint of the second. Most versions interpret the increase in size to refer to length, although it might also refer to overall size, since the purpose of the action was to gain attention. their: pl. of Grk. ho, definite article but used here as a relative pronoun. tassels: pl. of Grk. kraspedon may refer either to a ritually designed edge (hem or border) of a garment or to a ritual tassel, which is the meaning here. Messianic Jewish versions translate the noun with tzitziyot (CJB, OJB, TLV), although MW has the singular tzitzit. This addition to a four-cornered garment was (and is) uniquely Jewish.
Christian versions are divided between translating the word as "borders" (KJV, NKJV), "fringes" (ESV, NRSV, RSV, TLB) or "tassels" (AMP, CSB, CEB, CEV, DRA, GW, NASB, NEB, NIV, NJB, NLT, and NOG). Of interest is that the Jewish Publication Society Bible (both 1917 and 1985 update) has "fringes," as does the English translation of Talmud passages. In Greek culture kraspedon could refer to the edge, border, or skirt, of cloth, or fig. of the skirts or edge of a country, a mountain or an army encampment (LSJ). The Jewish translators of the LXX chose kraspedon as the best possible word to translate Heb. tzitzit (SH-6734) in Numbers 15:38-39.
Unlike tefillin, the wear of tzitziyot is expressly commanded in the Torah.
37 And ADONAI spoke to Moses saying, 38 "Speak to the sons of Israel and bid them and they shall make for themselves a tzitzit on the corners of their garments throughout their generations, and they shall put on the tzitzit of the corners a blue thread. 39 And it shall be to you a tzitzit, that you may look on it and remember all the commandments of ADONAI and do them and not be seeking after your own hearts and after your own eyes, which you go whoring after them." (Num 15:38-39 mine)
"You shall make gedilim [SH-1434] on the four corners of your garment with which you cover yourself" (Deut 22:12 mine) [A gedil means "twisted thread."]
The purpose of the tzitziyot was not ceremonial but practical. It would be a public testimony that the wearer lived by the commandments of Torah, and rejected the sinful desires of the flesh. There was no fixed length for the tzitzit in the Torah or rabbinic regulation, making it a very personal decision. To say that the scribes and Pharisees "lengthened" their tzitziyot meant longer than was commonly worn.
The tzitziyot ("fringes") are mentioned in Targum Onkelos (Num 15:38; Deut 22:12). Targum Jonathan also mentions the "fringes" along with more detailed instruction for creation: Numbers; Deuteronomy. As with tefillin rabbinic regulations for the "fringes" are found in tractate Menachot (39b–44a). Today Jewish men wear tzitziyot on a tallit gadol ("large tallit"), which is not an article of clothing but a ritual cloth donned primarily for synagogue worship, or on a tallit katan ("little tallit"), which is an undergarment especially designed with corners for the tzitziyot (Stern). According to the Torah instruction the tzitziyot have a unique appearance. Each tzitzit was to have one thread of blue (Heb. tekelet, SH-8504, "violet").
This blue color was also used in tabernacle curtains (Ex 25:4) and later in temple hangings (2Chr 2:6, 14). The Torah does not identify a source for the blue dye, but Rabbinic authorities identified the source as a particular snail native to Israel (Men. 4:1; 44a). The dye for the blue thread was rare and very expensive. Rabbinic regulation specified that tzitzit be tied by using 8 threads (including the blue thread), five double-knots and four windings between the knots. The five knots immediately signify to the Jewish mind the five books of Moses, the Torah. The four windings represent the four letters in the sacred name of God, YHVH, and His oneness (Pryor 35). See the Jewish Encyclopedia article on Fringes for more information.
Yeshua wore tzitziyot on his outer garment and a woman with a blood disorder was healed by grasping them (Matt 9:20; para. Luke 8:44). Other people were also healed in the same manner (Matt 14:36; para. Mark 6:56). The reason for this manner of healing may be found by comparing two verses of Scripture: Numbers 15:38 and Malachi 4:2. The Hebrew word in Numbers 15:38 for corner kanaph can also mean "wing." Malachi 4:2 uses this word, "But for you who fear My name, the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its wings [Heb. kanaph]." When anyone touched the tzitziyot of Yeshua's cloak, that person touched the Son of Righteousness. Taking hold of the tzitziyot was symbolic of taking hold of the God of Israel and, claiming the promise of Malachi.
Zechariah contains an important prophecy related to the tzitziyot:
"Thus says the ADONAI-Tzva'ot, 'In those days ten men from all languages of the nations will grasp the garment corner [Heb. kanaph] of him who is a Y'hudi, saying, We will go with you, for we have heard that Elohim is with you" (Zech 8:23 mine).
David Baron, a Messianic Jewish scholar, in his commentary on Zechariah notes that "ten," which can symbolize an indefinite number, stands for a "great and complete multitude" (254). The prophecy echoes the promise of Isaiah 66:18 that all nations and tongues will come to Jerusalem and see God's glory. Taking hold of the "corner," which implies the tzitzit, represents an earnest determination of Gentile seekers, like Ruth, to align themselves with Israel's God and people. This prophecy has also been spiritually fulfilled in modern times by Christians worshipping with Messianic Jews and supporting Messianic Judaism, including its evangelistic outreach.
In my view the three practices of tefillin, tzitziyot and mezuzah could be added to the list of signs that designate Jews as a covenantal people. The requirements do not apply to Gentiles, although they are free to use them. Talmudic rules for these practices have gone far beyond the wording of the Torah instruction. The commandments for these practices leave a lot unsaid and therefore freedom in the manner of observance. The point was that obedience of God's commandments could be encouraged by having visual reminders. The Pharisees determined to make these commandments explicit in the most legalistic detail, so that anyone who did not conform to their interpretation would be deemed a sinner. It is no wonder that the Jewish population at large didn't bother with these practices given the elitist attitude of the Pharisees (John 7:49).
6 and they love the chief place at the banquets and the first seats in the synagogues,
and: Grk. de, conj. they love: Grk. phileō, pres., to manifest some act of kindness or affection toward someone, to love or regard with affection, to kiss, to like or be fond of, or to cherish inordinately. The verb conveys an emotional content. In the LXX phileō translates Heb. aheb only about 30 times out of the 209 times the noun occurs, but aheb is a far more comprehensive word than phileō (DNTT 2:547). the first place: Grk. prōtoklisia, a prominent reclining position at a dinner; place of honor. LSJ defines as "first place at table." At a dinner of a Sage and his disciples it was customary for the one next in rank to be on the Sage's left and the third in rank on his right (Berachot 46b). at: Grk. en, prep. generally used to mark position with the root meaning of "within," and may be rendered "in, on, at, among, or within" as appropriate to the context (DM 105).
the banquets: pl. of Grk. deipnon is used to mean (1) the daily main meal, generally in the evening (Luke 14:12; 1Cor 11:21; 4Macc 3:9), (2) a royal feast or formal banquet (Matt 23:6; Mark 6:21; 12:39; Luke 14:16-17; 20:46), (3) the Passover commemorative meal (John 13:2, 4; 21:20), (4) the Lord's Supper (1Cor 11:20), or (5) an eschatological meal (Rev 19:9, 17). The second meaning is intended here. In Greek literature the time of day varies for the deipnon, but generally it was associated with the evening. In the LXX deipnon occurs in Daniel for Heb. pathbag (SH-6598), portion of food, delicacies (Dan 1:16) and Aram. lechem (SH-3900), feast, (Dan 5:1) (DNTT 2:521). The term in this context may refer to festival meals or some other special feast.
Yeshua's criticism of the scribes and Pharisees was apparently lost on his disciples. On a previous occasion the disciples had argued among themselves as to who was the greatest (Mark 9:34), and Jacob and John had asked for the chief positions on either side of Yeshua in the Kingdom (Matt 20:20-21; Mark 10:35-37). Two days from now during Yeshua's last Passover, an acted out parable of the Kingdom, John will secure the position on Yeshua's right, which makes it possible for him to lean back on Yeshua's bosom (John 13:23) and Judas will gain the chief position on Yeshua's left, which enables him to receive the dipped matzah (John 13:26). The presumption of Judas in taking the coveted position no doubt restarts the dispute of greatness (Luke 22:24). On that occasion Yeshua will again rebuke his disciples for their attitude (Luke 22:25-27).
and: Grk. kai, conj. the first seats: pl. of prōtokathedria, a place of honor at a special event or gathering; best seat. LSJ has "the first seat in a public place." in: Grk. en. the synagogues: pl. of Grk. sunagōgē means a gathering-place or place of assembly and in the rest of the Greek apostolic writings refers to the place at which Jews gathered for worship and learning as well as the congregation that met (Acts 6:9; 9:2; Jas 2:2). The origin of sunagōgē dates back to the 5th century BC and in ancient times was used to refer to any collection of things or people. Sunagōgē had a particular usage by Gentile trade guilds to refer to both their business meetings and religious feasts. In the LXX sunagōgē occurs 225 times and is generally used to translate the Heb. words qahal (a summons to an assembly, Ex 16:3) and edah (the assembly or congregation of Israel, Ex 12:3) (DNTT 1:292ff).
The earliest archaeological evidence for the synagogue, found in Egypt, is dated to the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC (OCB 722). The origin of the synagogue is not known for certain, but scholars generally date its beginning during the Babylonian exile. Pious Jews, far from their native land, without the ministry of the Temple, no doubt felt the necessity to gather on the Sabbath in order to listen to the word of God and engage in prayer (cf. Ps 137; Jer 29:7; Ezek 14:1; 20:1; Acts 16:13). Eventually meetings came also to be held on other days, and at the same hours as the morning and evening services in the Temple. According to the Jewish philosopher Philo (20 B.C. - A.D. 50) synagogues were houses of prayer and schools of wisdom (On the Life of Moses , 39).
By the first century, synagogues, especially in the Diaspora, emerged as the central institution of Jewish life as a place where study, worship, exhortation, celebration, and various other kinds of meetings take place. Ceremonies were conducted in full view of the participants, with the masses of people no longer being relegated to outer courtyards, as was the case in the Jerusalem Temple (OCB 722). In contrast to the Sadducees who exercised supervision over the temple, Pharisees supervised the learning of Torah in the synagogue.
Moseley, citing the Jerusalem Talmud (Meg. 3:1; Ket. 105a; Sot. 7:7, 8; Yom. 7:1) says there were between 394 and 400 synagogues in Jerusalem during the first century (8), although one might infer from the Babylonian Talmud that the number 394 was the sum total of synagogues, houses of study and schools in Jerusalem (Ket. 105a). There were certainly many synagogues, especially in each quarter of foreign Jews residing in Jerusalem (cf. Acts 2:5, 9-11; 6:9) (Jeremias 62).
Jacob, the half-brother of Yeshua, will later chastise members of the Messianic synagogue, for giving a place of honor to a wealthy person while treating the poor person with discrimination (Jas 2:3). Apparently the "chief seats" in the synagogue referred to the bench in front of the ark where the Scriptures were contained while facing the congregation. It was reserved for the officials and persons of high distinction (Rienecker 1:123). The hypocrites wanted to sit near those of high social distinction and in so doing be associated with them. It was a form of "networking."
7 and greetings in the marketplaces and being called rabbi by men.
and: Grk. kai, conj. greetings: pl. of Grk. aspasmos, a greeting or salutation, whether oral or written. The noun in this context implies being recognized. in: Grk. en, prep. the marketplaces: pl. of Grk. agora, a place for gathering, especially of a marketplace as the center of civic life. and: Grk. kai. to be called: Grk. kaleō, pres. pass. inf., to identify by name or give a term to. The infinitive emphasizes being recognized as a present reality along with the greetings. rabbi: Grk. rhabbi, a transliteration of the Hebrew rabbi ("rah-bee", lit. "my lord, my master"), derived from Heb. rab (SH-7227, "great, lord, master") (BAG). Rhabbi or the Hebrew Rabbi does not occur in the Tanakh, LXX, or DSS. Rhabbi is found 15 times in the Besekh, all in the apostolic narratives. A derivative form rhabbouni occurs twice (Mark 10:51; John 20:16). All but two of these mentions are addressed to Yeshua.
In the first century Rhabbi was an honorific title of respect exclusively used for Torah scholars (Stern 68). "Rabbi" was not a job description. In The Talmud Rabbi is used only of Sages from the land of Israel and the phrase "our rabbis taught" is used frequently in the Talmud to introduce important sayings of these men. These Sages considered themselves authorities in their own right, having replaced the prophets (Baba Bathra 12a). Sages of later periods in Babylon are identified in the Talmud by Rab or Rabban. Dan Gruber comments that Yochanan ben Zakkai (20 BC–80 AD) after the destruction of the temple is the first individual to be called Rabbi in the Talmud (MW-Notes 54). But the Talmud does project the title back into earlier times as in this saying,
"Jehoshaphat king of Judah, who every time he beheld a scholar-disciple rose from his throne, and embraced and kissed him, calling him Father, Father; Rabbi, Rabbi; Mari, Mari!" (Makkot 24a; parallel sayings are found in Ketubot 103b and Taanith 20b)
The respect accorded to a rabbi is illustrated by the Talmud saying, "Whosoever has been present at the death of Rabbi is destined to enjoy the life of the world to come" (Ket. 103b). Ordinarily the title "Rabbi" was used of someone that had been ordained by a board of three elders established by the Sanhedrin through a ceremony of laying on of hands, called in Hebrew semikhah (DNTT 3:115). The practice hearkens back to the occasion when Moses "laid hands" on Joshua to appoint him as his successor to lead Israel after his death (Num 27:18, 23). An ordained rabbi had the right to judge and to decide points of halakhah or application of Torah. Notable rabbis had pupils or disciples who studied their expositions and were duty bound to obey their instructions. The title did not become associated with the congregational leader of a local synagogue until Medieval times ("Rabbi," JVL).
Clarke notes that Rabbi is one of three titles of dignity used among the Jews and applied to their doctors - Rab, Rabbi, and Rabban; each of these terms has its particular meaning: Rabban implies much more than Rabbi, and Rabbi much more than Rab. The Rabbans were looked up to as infallible oracles in religious matters, and in Rabbinic Judaism usurped not only the place of the Torah, but of God himself. (See Daniel Gruber, Rabbi Akiba's Messiah: The Origins of Rabbinic Authority, Elijah Publishing 1999; also the article "Rabbinic Judaism" at ElijahNet.net.)
by: Grk. hupo, prep. used as (1) a marker of agent or cause, "by;" or (2) a marker of a position that is relatively lower; "below, under." The first usage is intended here. men: pl. of Grk. anthrōpos. See verse 4 above. A number of versions have a gender neutral translation of "others" (ESV, NIV) or "people" (CSB, CEV, GW, NCV, NIRV, NJB, NOG, NRSV, TEV). There are only two genders and the Pharisees would not care what women thought. "Men" is the appropriate translation here (KJV, MW, NASB, NKJV, RSV, TLV).
Yeshua's criticism reminds me of a time when a seminary professor with a Ph.D. complained in class that his pastor had neglected to call him "Doctor" in a public presentation, while addressing a medical doctor in the same presentation with the title. Such inordinate pride is unbecoming a disciple of Yeshua.
8 But you shall not be called Rabbi, for one is your teacher. Moreover, you are all brothers.
But: Grk. de, conj. you: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. The pronoun is more likely used of Yeshua's disciples as a group rather than the crowd. shall not: Grk. mē, adv. See verse 3 above. be called: Grk. kaleō, aor. pass. subj. See the previous verse. The subjunctive mood is used to denote mild contingency or probability; it looks toward what is conceivable or potential. In this verse the subjunctive is used to prohibit a future action. Rabbi: Grk. rhabbi. See the previous verse. In other words, don't emulate the prideful actions of the Pharisees described in the previous verse. Yeshua set the example. Even though people addressed him as "Rabbi," he never sought such formal recognition.
Kasdan treats Rabbi as a community leadership position and comments that Yeshua did not issue an outright condemnation of the title, but warned against using the title in the arrogant, even hypocritical manner exemplified by some of the Pharisees (266). Stern notes that the Hebrew Christian scholar Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum holds that this passage prohibits Messianic Jewish congregations from calling their leaders "rabbis" ("The Quest for a Messianic Theology: Statement," in Mishkan #2, Winter 1985, pp. 1–19; cited by Stern). Stern interprets Yeshua as prohibiting believers from accepting unearned honors, rather than outlawing titles. He goes on to say,
"A leader is to be humble, a servant (Matt 20:25–28); if he is given any title at all, he is not to become puffed up. Others in the community are to guard against making invidious distinctions between "clergy" and "laity" by bestowing titles.
"My own objection to the use of the title 'rabbi' today is not theological but ideological and practical. What should a 'Messianic rabbi' be? A pastor under another name? I think the term 'rabbi' sets up Jewish expectations which ought to be fulfilled. A Messianic Jewish congregational leader who accepts the title 'rabbi' without having training adequate to qualify him as a rabbi in a non-Messianic Jewish setting is accepting honor which he has not earned and to which he is not entitled; and this does violate Yeshua's injunction.
"Should a Messianic rabbi have s'mikhah (ordination)? If so, should it be Messianic or non-Messianic? If Messianic, who is qualified to grant it? Messianic Judaism at present has very few ordained rabbis and no accrediting agency. At present, in order not to embarrass the Messianic Jewish movement, I urge leaders without rabbinic training to resist letting themselves be called rabbi." (Stern 68)
for: Grk. gar, conj. one: Grk. heis, the numeral one. is: Grk. eimi, pres., to be, a function word used primarily to declare a state of existence, whether in the past ('was, were'), present ('are, is') or future ('will be'), often to unite a subject and predicate (BAG). your: Grk. humeis. teacher: Grk. didaskalos, teacher or instructor who regularly engaged in the imparting of knowledge or skills, a vocation of special status among the Israelites. In the LXX didaskalos only occurs in 2 Maccabees 1:10 to denote Aristobulus, the head of the Egyptian Jewish community, who, having dedicated an exposition of the Pentateuch to King Ptolemy Philometor, is called a teacher clearly for this reason.
Scholars speculate that the reason didaskalos does not occur in the LXX more often is that in Greek education teaching was concerned with imparting knowledge or technical skills, whereas Hebrew education is more concerned with ethical instruction and obedience. In the Qumran texts Heb. moreh, "teacher," occurs frequently, often with a qualifying phrase like "the righteous one," such as in the Damascus Document (CD 1:11; 20:32) and in the Commentary on Habakkuk (1QpHab 1:13; 2:2; 5:10; 7:4; 8:3; 9:9; 11:5), probably in reference to the founder of the sect (DNTT 3:767). Moreh is derived from the verb yarah, to throw or shoot and thus "one who throws out," "points out," or "instructs," (Prov 5:13; Isa 9:15). Elsewhere didaskalos is used interchangeably with Grk. rhabbi (Matt 23:8; John 1:38; 3:2).
Moreover: Grk. de. you: Grk. humeis. are: Grk. eimi, pres. all: pl. of Grk. pas, adj. See verse 3 above. brothers: pl. of Grk. adelphos, lit. "of the same womb," and in secular Greek meant "brother." In the apostolic narratives adelphos primarily refers to blood siblings or fellow Israelites. In the LXX adelphos is used for the Heb. ach, meaning (1) brother, a male sibling born of the same mother and father (Gen 4:2); also half-siblings (Gen 20:5). Even though Peter, Jacob and John held some prominence among the Twelve, Yeshua emphasizes their equality. He did not want any of them to take a superior position over the others.
In my view the interpretations of Kasdan, Fruchtenbaum and Stern focus on issues not germane to the cultural context. First century Rabbis were not congregational pastors, but notable Sages of the era. The most noted Rabbi-teachers of the first century were Hillel and Shammai. The Judean authorities noted that Yeshua and his disciples had not been students at any of their academies (cf. John 7:15; 9:29; Acts 4:13). Yeshua did not mean, of course, that his apostles would not function as teachers and leaders in the Body of Messiah (cf. Matt 28:19; John 21:16; Eph 4:11), but they were not to supplant Yeshua by organizing disciples in their own names as the schools of Hillel and Shammai. Paul affirmed this principle in his Corinthian letter (1Cor 1:11-15) when he rebuked the development of parties aligned with the chief apostles. And, in compliance with this instruction these titles are never used in the Besekh by the apostles for themselves.
9 And call not one on the earth your father, for one is your Father, the One in heaven.
And: Grk. kai, conj. call: Grk. kaleō, aor. subj. See the previous verse. not: Grk. mē, negative particle. one on: Grk. epi, prep. the earth: Grk. gē can mean soil (as in receiving seed), the ground, land as contrasted with the sea, and the earth in contrast to heaven. The last meaning is intended here. In the LXX gē translates Heb. erets (SH-776), first in Genesis 1:1 (DNTT 1:517). In the Tanakh erets designates either (a) the earth in a cosmological sense, or (b) "the land" in the sense of a specific territorial area, primarily the Land of Israel (BDB 75). your: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. father: Grk. patēr, used normally of a male biological parent or ancestor. In the LXX patēr renders ab ("av"), which generally occurs in the human sense (DNTT 1:616f).
for: Grk. gar, conj. one: Grk. heis, the numeral one. is: Grk. eimi, pres. See the previous verse. your: Grk. humeis. Father: Grk. patēr. Frequently patēr is used in reference to God, which emphasizes both his activity as creator and sustainer. In the Besekh the capitalized "Father" is a circumlocution for the God of Israel. While God gave physical life to mankind (cf. Acts 17:28), he is only Father in a spiritual and covenantal sense in relation to Israel. God's paternal relationship to Israel is affirmed many times in the Tanakh (e.g., Ex 4:22; Deut 1:31; 8:5; 32:6; Isa 43:6; 63:16; 64:8; Jer 3:19; 31:9; Hos 1:10: Mal 1:6; cf. 2Cor 6:18). the One: Grk. ho, definite article but used here as a demonstrative pronoun. Among Jews "The One" was a substitute expression for the sacred name of God (cf. Ps 3:3; 37:24; Isa 40:26; 45:7; 49:7; Amos 9:5-6; John 1:15, 33; 6:46; 7:18; 11:27; 12:45; 15:21; Acts 10:42; Rom 5:17; 2Cor 4:6).
in: Grk. en, prep. heaven: Grk. ouranos refers to the area above the earth that encompasses the atmosphere, interstellar space and the transcendent dwelling-place of God. In the LXX ouranos translates the Heb. hashamayim (lit. "the heavens”) (DNTT 2:191). The Hebrew and Greek words for "heaven" are used in Scripture to refer to three different places (Ps 148:1-4). In terms of direction from the ground level of the earth the first heaven is the atmosphere in which birds fly (Gen 1:20; Rev 19:17). The second heaven is interstellar space (Gen 1:1, 8; Matt 24:29) and the third heaven is the location of the throne of God and the home of angels (1Kgs 8:30; Matt 6:9; 2Cor 12:2). The third heaven is in view here. In Scripture ouranos is always "up" as a direction from the surface of the earth.
In context "rabbi" and "father" are synonyms. Yeshua is not referring to Catholic priests, since the Catholic Church has not been invented yet. In Scripture the "fathers" were Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and David. However, in the first century the "fathers" were the great Sages whose sayings are preserved in the Tractate Avot. Their teachings were considered more important than one's biological father (cf. Deut 6:7), because while a biological father brought the disciple into the life of this world, the Torah-scholar brought him into the life of the world to come (Baba Metzia 2:13). Thus, a first century Rabbi was equivalent to a cult leader that exercised absolute authority over his students.
Clarke suggests that Yeshua alludes to the Ab, or father of the Sanhedrin, who was the next after the nasi, or president. Yeshua intends his disciples to understand that he would have no Second, after himself, established in the Body of Messiah, of which he alone is the head (Eph 1:22; 5:23; Col 2:19); and that equality must be the norm among his disciples.
10 Nor be called instructors, because one is your instructor, the Messiah.
Nor: Grk. mēde, conj., negative particle used in escalation of negation; not, nor. be called: Grk. kaleō, aor. pass. subj. See verse 8 above. The subjunctive of prohibition relates to seeking the honor mentioned. instructors: pl. of Grk. kathēgētēs, lead the way, then instruct. The noun refers to a leader; someone bringing others "down the road of learning" by giving needed instruction; a master-teacher (HELPS). Thayer defines the noun as guide, master or teacher. The noun is not found in the LXX or earlier Jewish literature and occurs in the Besekh only in this verse. Bible versions are divided between translating the noun as "instructors," "teachers" and "masters." We should consider that kathēgētēs is not equivalent to kurios ("lord") or despotēs ("master").
A kathēgētēs describes someone who has reached the pinnacle of education and is a teacher of teachers. In this context, kathēgētēs is a synonym of rhabbi in verse 8 and patēr in verse 9, i.e. an allusion to the Jewish Sages. The Mishnah has this office in mind in the admonition, "Appoint for yourself a teacher" (Avot 1:6). because: Grk. hoti, conj. that serves as a link between two sets of data, whether (1) defining a demonstrative pronoun; that; (2) introducing a subordinate clause as complementary of a preceding verb, 'that;' (3) introducing a direct quotation and functioning as quotation marks; or (4) indicating causality with an inferential aspect; 'for, because, inasmuch as.' The fourth usage applies here.
one: Grk. heis, the numeral one. is: Grk. eimi, pres. See verse 8 above. your: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. instructor: Grk. kathēgētēs. the Messiah: Grk. Christos, the expected fulfiller of the hopes of Israel for an end-time deliverer, the Messiah. The English "Christ" transliterates the Greek title, but does not translate it. In Greek culture christos comes from chriein, to rub lightly, and in its secular use had no religious connotation at all (DNTT 2:334). Jewish translators of the LXX chose Christos to render Heb. Mashiach (SH-4899), anointed, Anointed One, and in so doing infused new meaning into the Greek word. Mashiach is used in the Tanakh for the Messiah (Ps 2:2; Dan 9:25-26) and this usage defined the term among Jews in the first century.
Jews eagerly anticipated the coming of the Messiah to deliver them from their enemies and establish His kingdom on the earth (Luke 1:69-75). Thus, "Messiah" has a special meaning as the hope of Israel. For more information on the title of Messiah, see my article Who is Yeshua? Speaking of himself in the third person as the Messiah, Yeshua declares that he is the source of learning how to understand and apply Torah. He is the way, the truth and the light, one who illuminates every person (John 1:9). Moreover, he speaks to his disciples by his Spirit (Matt 10:20; John 16:13).
11 But the greatest of you will be your servant.
But: Grk. de, conj. the greatest: Grk. megas, adj. with the definite article, large or great in extent and used (1) of any extension in space in all directions; or (2) fig. of measure, whether of age, quantity, intensity, importance or social position (BAG). The adjective is used here to emphasize social status. of you: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. will be: Grk. eimi, fut. mid. See verse 8 above. your: Grk. humeis. servant: Grk. diakonos, one who renders service to another, such as in a domestic or government context, but especially of one in the service of God, the Messiah, the Messianic community and the good news.
Robertson suggests that diakonos may be derived from dia (through) and konis (dust), to raise a dust by one’s hurry, and so to minister (note on Matt 20:26). A rabbinic saying from approximately a hundred years before Yeshua illustrates the devotion of a diakonos: "Let your home be a meeting-house for the sages, and cover yourself in the dust of their feet, and drink in their words thirstily" (Avot 1:4; translation by Bivin 12). The term would eventually become a technical term denoting someone in a recognized office in the congregation and having the duty of caring for its practical affairs and charitable ministry (Acts 6:1-6; Php 1:1; 1Tim 3:1).
12 Moreover, whoever will exalt himself will be humbled, and whoever will humble himself will be exalted.
Moreover: Grk. de, conj. whoever: Grk. hostis, relative pronoun used as a generalizing reference to the subject of a verb, 'anyone,' or 'whoever.' will exalt: Grk. hupsoō, fut., may mean (1) cause to move from a position to one that is higher, lift upward; or (2) cause to be higher in status, elevate, exalt. The second meaning applies here. In the LXX hupsoō occurs 150 times and stands for four different Hebrew words. In the great majority of instances hupsoō renders Heb. rum (SH-7311), to be high, exalted, to rise (DNTT 2:201). himself: Grk. heautou, reflexive pronoun of the third person to denote that the agent and the person acted on are the same. will be humbled: Grk. tapeinoō, fut. pass., lower or make low, lit. "be humbled." Since the verb is in the passive voice it could mean to accept the humbling caused by God.
Yeshua made this same observation on other occasions (Luke 14:11; 18:14). The choice of future tense for "exalt" in this verse in lieu of present tense (as in the Lukan parallels) hints at a change that will take place. The change in the expectation of people for reward and punishment is impacted by the arrival of the Messiah and the inauguration of the Kingdom of Heaven. The implicit warning in this declaration of reality is that the scribes and Pharisees whom Yeshua criticized had all the reward they could expect for their misdirected pride (Matt 6:5).
and: Grk. kai, conj. whoever: Gr. hostis. will humble: Grk. tapeinoō, fut. The Lukan parallels have this verb as present tense. himself: Grk. heautou. will be exalted: Grk. hupsoō, fut. pass. Yeshua does not offer a "health and wealth" guarantee for humility. In fact, the humble may suffer in this life. The second use of the verb really intends the first meaning listed above. The humble will be moved higher in favor with God to receive grace (cf. Jas 4:6; 1Pet 5:5) and eternal rewards (Matt 5:1, 12; 6:1, 4, 6). Gill notes that the same axiom may be found in the Talmud, "him who humbles himself, the Holy One, blessed be He, raises up, and him who exalts himself, the Holy One, blessed be He, humbles'' (Erubin 13b; Nedarim 55a.).
Eight Woes on Hypocrites, 23:13-33
13 But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you shut the kingdom of heaven in the face of men. For you are not entering nor allowing those entering to enter.
But: Grk. de, conj. woe: Grk. ouai, interjection, which may be used as (1) an interj. expressing sense of profound grief, especially in the face of impending disaster; woe, alas; or (2) a noun with focus on the certainty of assured disaster; woe. The first meaning is intended here. The word conveys the overwhelming emotional impact of catastrophe. In the LXX ouai renders six different Hebrew words (hoy, oy, ho, i, and hovah), which may express grief, despair, lamentation, dissatisfaction, pain, or a threat (DNTT 3:1051). The pronouncement of woe occurs especially in the Hebrew prophets in branding the consequences for sinful behavior in Israel and announcements of judgment on enemies of Israel.
to you: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. scribes: pl. of Grk. grammateus, vocative case (direct address). See verse 2 above. and Pharisees: pl. of Grk. Pharisaios, voc. See verse 2 above. Yeshua obviously does not mean all scribes and Pharisees as the following denunciation demonstrates. hypocrites: pl. of Grk. hupocritēs, voc., one who assumes a role in a dramatic production, thus one who claims to be what one is not, pretender. Properly the noun means "a judging under," like a theater performer on a Greek stage acting under a mask; fig. a two-faced person; a "hypocrite," whose profession does not match their practice, i.e., someone who "says one thing but does another" (HELPS). In the LXX hupocritēs translates Heb. haner, someone estranged from God, and occurs only twice in the Tanakh (Job 34:30; 36:13) and refers to someone who is too proud to call for help when he needs it.
Yeshua addresses directly those whom he considers offenders of righteousness. He first used the term "hypocrite" in the Sermon on the Mount in describing the actions of certain Pharisees (Matt 6:2, 5, 16; 7:5) and later addresses his adversaries with the term (Matt 15:7; 22:18). Yeshua's adversaries were like those of whom Isaiah wrote that with their lips they honor God, but their heart is far from Him (Isa 29:13). Even the Jewish Sages named seven types of hypocritical Pharisees (Avot 5:9; Sotah 22b). Sotah 22b also reports that King Alexander Jannaeus, the Hasmonean ruler of Judea (103–76 BC), said to his wife (Salome), 'Fear not the Pharisees and the non-Pharisees but the hypocrites who ape the Pharisees; because their deeds are the deeds of Zimri (Num 25:14), but they expect a reward like Phinehas (Num 25:11-13)." Josephus' report of the King's advice to his wife describes both good and bad of the Pharisees (Ant. XIII, 15:5).
Regarding Yeshua's criticism of hypocritical leaders, Stern writes,
"Yeshua, like all the prophets, spoke the words of God without fear or favor. He comforted those who were open to him and made repeated invitation to those who opposed him; but when it had become evident that these particular Torah-teachers and P'rushim were hardhearted, closed-minded and interested only in confuting or trapping him, he seized the initiative, revealing his accusers for what they were. Was he 'unloving' toward them? Love must sometimes be tough. Even less was he antisemitic: his within-the-family correction was aimed at making these Jewish brothers of his live up to their high calling (and he partly succeeded; see Acts 15:5, 21:20, 23:6). If Yeshua was unloving or antisemitic, one must say the same of all the Jewish prophets from Moses to Malachi." (69)
because: Grk. hoti, conj. See verse 10 above. you shut: Grk. kleiō, pres., 2p-pl., closed to prevent entry; locked, shut. the kingdom: Grk. basileia, is used to mean (1) an abstract 'act of ruling' and thus 'kingship, royal power, royal rule, or kingdom; (2) a territory ruled over by a king; kingdom; or (3) the royal reign of God or kingdom of God as a chiefly eschatological concept, appearing in the Hebrew prophets and Jewish apocalyptic literature. The term appears widely in Jewish literature of the time. In the LXX basileia renders Hebrew noun derivatives of the verb malak (SH-4427, become a king; reign), some 400 times (DNTT 2:373). The Hebrew words are used primarily for the reign of earthly rulers and only secondarily of God's kingship.
of heaven: pl. of Grk. ouranos, lit. "the heavens." See verse 9 above. The word "heaven" is used here as a circumlocution for "God." In the Tanakh the concept of God's kingly rule is presented in connection with the Israelite monarchy, particularly in relation to the promise made to David (2Sam 7:12-14). Even in the eschatological kingdom the ruler will be a Jewish descendant of David (Jer 23:5; 33:15; Ezek 34:23-24; 37:24-25; Hos 3:5; Zech 12:7-10). The hope that God would establish his reign as King over all the earth, with all idolatry banished, is expressed frequently in Scripture (e.g., Ex 15:18; Ps 22:28; 29:10; 93-99; 103:19; 145:10-13; Isa 34:23; 52:7; Dan 2:44; 4:3; 7:27; Micah 4:7; and Zech 14:9).
The angel Gabriel announced to Miriam that the promise made to David would be fulfilled in her son (Luke 1:30-33). Yochanan the Immerser then prepared the way for the Kingdom of God (cf. Matt 11:12; Luke 16:16). When Yeshua began his ministry he made the public announcement, "the kingdom of heaven has drawn near" (Matt 4:17 BR). When Yeshua commissioned his apostles for their first mission experience he instructed them to make the same announcement (Matt 10:7). The kingdom was manifest in the person of Yeshua, who is the king of Israel (John 1:49).
in the face of: Grk. emprosthen, prep., expresses position that is in front or ahead; before, in front of. men: pl. of Grk. anthrōpos. See verse 4 above. For: Grk. gar, conj. you: Grk. humeis. are not: Grk. ou, adv. entering: Grk. eiserchomai, pres. mid., to go or enter into a geographical area, manufactured structure or other place defined in the context. nor: Grk. oude, conj. allowing: Grk. aphiēmi, pres., to release or let go with a range of meaning: (1) release from one's presence; (2) release from an obligation, cancel, forgive; (3) let remain behind; (4) leave standing or lying; and (5) permissive sense of let, let go, allow or tolerate. The fifth meaning applies here. those: pl. of Grk. ho, definite article but used here as a relative pronoun. entering: Grk. eiserchomai, pres. mid. part. to enter: Grk. eiserchomai, aor. inf.
Yeshua graphically depicts the hypocrisy of claiming to represent the kingdom while preventing people who really want to enter the true kingdom from entering. This is the first of eight hypocrisies Yeshua levels against his adversaries. He also spoke on previous occasions to name offenses of hypocrites that are not included here:
• Sounding a "trumpet" when giving to the poor (Matt 6:2).
• Praying vocally in public places to be seen by men (Matt 6:5).
• Neglecting appearance to emphasize the act of fasting (Matt 6:16).
• Caring more for animals than people (Luke 13:15).
14 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you devour houses of widows, and pray long for appearance sake; because of this you will receive greater condemnation.
Parallel Passages: Mark 12:40; Luke 20:47.
Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites: See the previous verse. The lamentation is repeated verbatim. because: Grk. hoti, conj. See verse 10 above. you devour: Grk. katesthiō, pres., 2p-pl., to devour, to eat up. houses: pl. of Grk. oikia (from oikeō, engage in housing) may mean either (1) a habitable structure; house, abode, private residence (Matt 2:11; John 11:31); (2) fig. of a group within a house; household or family (Matt 10:13; John 4:53); (3) fig. of goods, property or means (Matt 23:13); (4) fig. of a life built on certain values (Matt 7:24-27); or (5) fig. of the bodily abode of the soul (2Cor 5:1). The third meaning is in view here. In the LXX oikia translates Heb. bayit (SH-1004), house as a dwelling habitation, household, descendants; first in Genesis 17:12.
of widows: pl. of Grk. chēra, a woman bereft of her husband. The plural nouns indicate a major social injustice. Geldenhuys suggests that the offense of the scribes against the widows was living on their kindheartedness and constantly insisting that they should give large temple gifts and contributions for public worship, contributions too high for their limited means (518). Jeremias suggests Yeshua likely refers to the habit of scribes sponging on the hospitality of people of limited means (114). The practice of motivating generosity by guilt is despicable, especially given the wealth of the temple establishment. The story of the generous widow in Mark 12:41-44 powerfully illustrates the point. Like the prophets before him Yeshua was rightly concerned about the exploitation of the poor, particularly widows, who were the most defenseless.
and: Grk. kai, conj. pray: Grk. proseuchomai, pres. mid. part., to petition deity for some personal desire. The verb is plural, which could imply either the united prayer of the group or the sum total of the hypocrites praying individually. In the LXX proseuchomai renders Heb. palal, to intervene or interpose, i.e., judge. The verb has a variety of meanings, including arbitrate, judge, intercede and pray. The context of prayer in the Tanakh is addressing the Sovereign Judge of all people and thus prayer by its nature requires self-examination. The verb refers to petitioning God for His help or answer with respect to an urgent need. The first mention of prayer in the Bible is of Abraham (Gen 20:7) and occurs on occasion for personal requests (e.g., Hezekiah, 2Chr 32:24).
There is no command to pray in the Torah. Prayer was generally accomplished by proxy, that is the high priest did the interceding. Individuals did pray, of course, and most of the time God granted the person's desire. (God did occasionally say "no," 2Sam 7:1-5; 12:16-18.) In the Besekh prayer is treated as a divine expectation, if not an obligation of every disciple (Eph 6:18; Php 4:6; Col 4:2; 1Th 5:17; 1Tim 2:1; Jas 5:13-16; Jude 1:20). Devout Jews, living at Jerusalem, went to the temple to pray every day (Luke 18:10; Acts 3:1). Jews who lived at a distance too far for a daily journey went to a synagogue and faced Jerusalem. The Torah does not regulate prayer in any fashion but by the first century it was conducted three times each day, following the model of David (Ps 55:17) and Daniel (Dan 6:10).
The hours of prayer were known and religiously observed by all devout Jews and conducted in connection with the temple ritual. The first period of prayer coincided with the morning sacrifice, at the third hour of the morning, about 9 A.M. (Acts 2:15). The second was at the sixth hour, or at noon, and may have coincided with the thanksgiving for the chief meal of the day (Matt 15:36; Acts 27:35). The third hour of prayer coincided with the evening sacrifice, at the ninth hour (about 3:00 P.M., Acts 3:1; 10:30).
long: Grk. makros, adj., long, used adverbially in the sense of goes on and on. Yeshua's criticism contrasts with the Talmudic exhortation, "A man's words should always be few in addressing the Holy One" (Berakoth 61a). for appearance sake: Grk. prophasis, appearance or show that hides or conceals; pretext. In the parallel passages of Mark 12:40 and Luke 20:47 the CJB translates "pray long" with "making a show of davvening," a Yiddish term for prayer. Stern explains his usage of davvening:
"The term usually refers to praying the liturgical prayers of the synagogue. Today’s traditional Jew davvens three times a day, adding extra prayers on Shabbat and yom tov (festivals). In the synagogue the chazan (cantor) chants the first few words of each prayer or blessing, and each person recites the prayer softly at his own speed, until the cantor signals the end of that prayer by chanting its last few words. One can call attention to oneself by reciting the prayer loudly or with florid chanting which gives an appearance of deep piety. Although the specifics of first-century davvening were different, Yeshua here inveighs against such religiosity." (40)
However, Yeshua spoke Hebrew, not Yiddish and "daven" and "pray" are not synonyms. Yeshua criticizes pray in public places to impress others. They really were not trying to communicate with God. Yeshua did not condemn long prayers per se, since there are a number of lengthy prayers recorded in Scripture. In essence these hypocrites were too much like pagans in that they believed they would be heard for their many words and meaningless repetitions (Matt 6:5-7). Examples of such "much speaking" may be noted in Scripture: In 1Kings 18:26 the prophets of Baal cried out, "O Baal answer us," from morning until noon. In Acts 19:34 the Ephesian mob kept shouting "Great is Artemis of the Ephesians" for two hours.
because of: Grk. dia, prep., lit. "through," but here the preposition signifies a causal function. this: Grk. houtos, demonstrative pron. signifying a person or thing set forth in narrative that precedes or follows it; this. you will receive: Grk. lambanō, fut. mid. The verb marks the transit of something from a position to another person who is the agent with the latter being also the receptor; to take or receive. greater: Grk. perissos, adv., extraordinary in number, size or quality; extraordinary, in surplus, in abundance. The word is used adverbially to makes a comparison indicating the possession of something extra, which in this context equals a disadvantage.
condemnation: Grk. krima may refer to a judicial decision, decree or verdict, or a sentence of condemnation and the subsequent punishment itself. The statement implies a contrast with the resulting question, "greater than who?" and "greater than what?" Just as there are proportional rewards (Matt 25:14-23), so there seems to be proportional punishments.
Verse 14 is not found in early MSS: Sinaiticus (4th c.), Vaticanus (4th c.), Vulgate-Wordsworth (4th c.), Armenian (4th-5th c.), Georgian (5th c.), Origen-Latin (AD 254), Eusebius (AD 339), and Jerome (AD 420) (GNT 89). Thus, the verse is omitted in the NA28 Greek Text. Metzger says that this verse is borrowed from the parallel in Mark 12:40 or Luke 20:47 as is evident (1) from its absence in the earliest and best authorities of the Alexandrian and Western types of text, and (b) from the fact that the witnesses that include the passage have it in different places, either after verse 13 (as in the TR) or before verse 13. For this reason some versions omit the verse and place it in a marginal note and other versions include the verse in brackets to indicate textual uncertainty. The UBS-4 committee gave the text with verse 14 omitted an "A" rating, meaning the text with the omission is certain.
However, the NA-25 committee gave the text a "B" rating, meaning there is some degree of doubt. Here are reasons to accept the verse as original.
• The fact that the verse occurs in Mark and Luke means that Yeshua did offer this criticism of the scribes and Pharisees.
• The suggestion of borrowing is based on the literary theory that Mark wrote his book first and Matthew and Luke copied from his work. However, there is no evidence of such dependency and the grammatical forms of the nouns and verbs in the parallel verses are different. The church fathers give the sequence of composition and publication of the apostolic narratives as the order in which they appear in our Bibles. See my article The So-Called Synoptic Problem.
• The verse is found in the majority of MSS and specific MSS that are as early as the MSS with the verse omitted: Vulgate-Clementine (4th c.), Syriac-Curetonian (2nd-5th c.), Syriac-Palestinian (AD 500), Coptic-Boharic (3rd-6th c.), Diatessaron (AD 170), Origen (AD 254), Hilary (AD 367) and Chrysostom (AD 407) (GNT 89).
• An equal number of Bible versions contain the verse without brackets (e.g., HNV, KJV, NCV, NIRV, NKJV, OJB, TLB, and WEB). All the early English versions (1395-1755) include the verse.
15 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you traverse the sea and the land to make one proselyte, and when he has become one, you make him a son of Gehenna, a double of yourselves.
Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites: See verse 13 above. The lamentation addressed directly to the offenders is repeated verbatim. because: Grk. hoti, conj. See verse 10 above. you traverse: Grk. periagō, pres., to travel in an area, go around or about, traverse. the sea: Grk. thalassa is used of both oceanic bodies of salt water and inland bodies of water, whether salt or fresh. In the English language "sea" normally refers to a body of salt water and "lake" to a body of fresh water, although local convention can override this rule. Thalassa simply refers to a body of water deep enough and wide enough to require a boat to cross it. In the LXX thalassa renders Heb. yam (SH-3220), "sea," which is used for oceans and seas (Gen 1:10), an inland salt sea (Gen 14:3) and an inland fresh-water lake (Num 34:11).
and: Grk. kai, conj. the land: Grk. gē. See verse 9 above. to make: Grk. poieō, aor. inf. See verse 3 above. one: Grk. heis, the numeral one. proselyte: Grk. prosēlutos, a convert from polytheism to Judaism or orthodox religion and practice as espoused especially in Judean circles. The Greek word prosēlutos is a technical term invented by the Jewish rabbis who translated the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek. The term occurs nowhere in secular Greek literature (DNTT 1:360). Prosēlutos occurs only four times in the Besekh (also Acts 2:10; 6:5; 13:43).
In the LXX prosēlutos renders Heb. ger (SH-1616), a sojourner or temporary dweller with no inheritance rights, first in Exodus 12:48. This term is variously translated as "alien, foreigner, immigrant, sojourner or stranger" in English Bibles. Prosēlutos also twice renders the participle form of the Heb. verb gur (SH-1481), to abide or sojourn (2Chr 15:9; Isa 54:15) and appears without Hebrew equivalent in Deut 12:18. The term also appears in Philo (Special Laws I). Philo says that proselytes are so called from "the fact of their having come over to a new and God-fearing constitution, learning to disregard the fabulous inventions of other nations, and clinging to unalloyed truth" (51). He also says of them that they "have left their country, and their friends, and their relations for the sake of virtue and holiness" (52).
Rabbinic tradition distinguished two kinds of proselytes, the righteous proselyte and the gate proselyte. The righteous proselyte, Heb. ger tzedek (or ger ha-b'rit, "proselyte of the covenant"), was a Gentile who chose full identification with Israel (cf. 2Chr 2:17-18; Esth 8:17), and, if male, submitted to circumcision (Ex 12:48). Rabbinic Judaism added immersion as a requirement (Yeb. 46a). A righteous proselyte was bound to all the doctrines and precepts of the Torah, and considered a full member of the Jewish people. A righteous proselyte could participate fully in all religious festivals and enjoyed all the legal rights accorded native Israelites, except inheritance rights in the land. In terms of piety a righteous proselyte lived as an orthodox Jew. The proselyte mentioned in this verse belong to this category.
The gate proselyte, Heb. ger ha-sha'ar, "proselyte of the gate" (Ex 20:10, Deut 5:13-14), was a "resident alien" who lived in the Land of Israel. They believed in and prayed to the God of Israel, attended synagogue worship, kept at least the moral code and other Jewish traditions in varying degrees, and gave alms and other financial support to the Jews. Gate proselytes were not circumcised and thus were not allowed to share in the Passover sacrifice. Those called "gate proselytes" likely correspond to the God-fearers (Acts 13:43; cf. Acts 10:2, 22, 35; 13:16, 26) and the God-worshipers (Acts 16:14; 17:17; 18:7). It should be noted that no proselyte of any kind was ever called a "Jew" by Jews, due to the unique covenantal promises made to the descendants of Jacob (cf. Gal. 5:3) (Stern 339). Only in the age to come will proselytes be granted land among the tribes of Israel (Ezek 47:22-23).
Stern notes that in the second century BC the Idumeans were forcibly converted to Judaism, and in the first century there was still active proselytizing by the Jewish community as Yeshua affirms here. In the first century many Gentiles expressed a deep interest in learning about Judaism, which is remarkable considering that Jews were regarded everywhere with disfavor and Judaism was sneered at as a barbaric superstition (Schurer 2:291f, 312). Wherever there was a Jewish synagogue there was also a devoted body of Gentiles attached to it (Ibid., 308, 312), which was a testament to the effectiveness of Pharisaic missionary activity.
and: Grk. kai. when: Grk. hotan, conj., a temporal marker indicating 'when' or 'whenever.' he has become one: Grk. ginomai, aor. mid. subj., to transfer from one state or condition to another, which may be expressed in one of three ways: (1) come into being birth or natural process; be born or produced; (2) exist through application of will or effort by a person; be made, be performed; or (3) undergo a state of existence, change or development; come to be, become, take place, happen, occur, arise, be, appear, come, arrive. The third meaning applies here.
you make: Grk. poieō, pres. him: Grk. autos, personal pronoun. a son: Grk. huios, a male offspring or descendant, whether by direct birth or by more remote ancestry. In the LXX huios renders Heb. ben (SH-1121, "son," "son of"), which is used in three distinctive ways: (1) to identify direct paternity; (2) to mean not the actual father but a more distant ancestor; or (3) to mean in a broader sense of having the characteristics of. The third meaning applies here.
of Gehenna: Grk. Gehenna refers to a place of fiery judgment after death, commonly translated as "hell." Gehenna does not occur in the LXX or other early Jewish literature in Greek (DNTT 2:208), but is a transliteration of Heb. Gey ben Hinnom, the valley of the son of Hinnom, to the south of Jerusalem, where children were once sacrificed to Moloch (Josh 15:8; 2Kgs 23:10; Jer 2:23; 7:31-32; 19:6) and in the first century served as a refuse dump. Rubbish fires were always burning there; hence its use as a metaphor for hell.
Hell is a real place, a physical reality. It is not just a metaphor for a state of separation from God. Yeshua spoke of Hell more than anyone else in Scripture and declared that it was originally prepared for the devil and his angels (Matt 25:41). Hell is fueled with an unquenchable fire, fire that cannot be put out (Matt 18:8-9). The fire of hell will not degrade in intensity over the course of eternity and it cannot be extinguished by any force other than God's power. According to the Talmud, Gehenna was one of seven things created before the world (Ned. 39b; cf. Isa 30:33, where the Heb. Topheth is regarded as a synonym for Gehenna).
The KJV uses "hell" over 30 times in the Tanakh, but the word being translated is sheol, the underworld that receives all the dead. Sheol is translated in the LXX with hadēs, transliterated in English as Hades. In the Tanakh little is known of sheol, except that it is a place of darkness devoid of joy (Job 17:13; Ps 6:5). However, during the intertestamental period many Jews embraced the doctrine of the immortality of the soul and resurrection, which altered the concept of Hades. Reward and punishment would begin after death and the souls of the righteous would enter heavenly blessedness, while the souls of the ungodly are punished in Hades. This was the position of the Pharisees and the Essenes (Josephus, Wars, II, 8:11, 14). Thus Hades became a place where the unredeemed dead are kept in anticipation of the final judgment.
Hell and Hades should not be confused. As illustrated in the parable of the rich man and Lazarus, Hades is a destination immediately upon death (Luke 16:22-26). Hades is always described as being down, thus it is in a subterranean region of the earth (cf. Deut 32:22; Ezek 26:20; Matt 11:23; 12:40; Luke 10:15; Eph 4:9). Since the Bible does not admit to any belief in Purgatory, Hades is not a temporary abode where one’s guilt is purged in order to qualify for the blessing of heaven. Hell should be associated with the lake of fire in Revelation 19:20, which is the place of final punishment after the white throne judgment (Rev 20:14-15). The lake of fire may be located in outer space across the galaxy since Hell is referred to as the "outer darkness" (cf. Matt 8:12; 22:13; 25:30; Jude 13).
Since Jews used "heaven" as a circumlocution for God, so "hell" could stand for Satan. Thus, "son of Gehenna" would be equivalent to the charge found in John 8:44 where Yeshua says of his adversaries "you are of your father the devil." Hypocrites are thus destined for hell (Matt 24:51).
a double: Grk. diplous, adj., double, two-fold. Most versions translate the adjective as "twice as much." of yourselves: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. The translation of most versions gives the impression that proselytes were far worse of character than the hypocrites that Yeshua was condemning. Such an interpretation is patently illogical. Otherwise, Yeshua would be pronouncing woes on proselytes. Rather, the charge is that the Gentiles embracing Judaism through the efforts of these hypocritical evangelists become clones of the hypocrites.
16 "Woe to you, blind guides, those saying, 'Whoever anyhow should swear by the sanctuary, it is nothing; but whoever anyhow should swear by the gold of the sanctuary is obligated.'
Woe: Grk. ouai, interjection. See verse 13 above. Yeshua pronounces the fourth lamentation, which extends through verse 22. to you: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. blind: Grk. tuphlos, adj., inability to see; blind, used here in a fig. sense. guides: pl. of Grk. hodēgos, one who aids another in reaching a destination; guide. On a previous occasion Yeshua had warned his disciples against the "blind guides" among the Pharisees (Matt 15:14). The spiritual blindness of the Pharisees was also highlighted in the account of the healing of the man born blind (John 9:39-41; see my commentary there). The Pharisee leaders were blind because they regarded Yeshua as a sinner for healing on a sabbath (John 9:16) and therefore discounted the healing as a work of God.
those: pl. of Grk. ho, definite article, but used here as a relative pronoun. saying: Grk. legō, pres. part. See verse 2 above. Whoever: Grk. hos, relative pronoun used to give significance to the mention of a person, thing, or piece of information that precedes; who, which, what, that. anyhow: Grk. an, a disjunctive particle that nuances a verb with contingency or generalization; would, ever, might, in that case, anyhow. HELPS says the particle indicates what could occur under certain conditions, and the context determines the limits of those conditions. The particle is often not translated. should swear: Grk. omnuō, aor. subj., to take an oath affirming veracity of what one says; swear. The subjunctive mood is used to denote a hypothetical situation.
In the LXX omnuō renders Heb. shaba (SH-7650), to swear, take an oath, charge by an oath, first in Genesis 21:23. The Hebrew word for swear is derived from the feminine form of the word for "seven" (Heb. sheba) and there is evidence in ancient literature that it was not uncommon to seal an agreement by the number "seven." A relationship between the two words is suggested in the narrative of Genesis 21. Abraham sealed an oath to Abimelech by giving seven ewe lambs as a witness (Gen 21:22-34), and Abraham named the well where he and Abimelech met "Beersheba" or "Well-of-the-seven-oath" (Gen 21:31). Thus, the literal meaning of the Hebrew word "swear" is to "seven oneself, or bind oneself by seven things" (BDB 989).
Yeshua addressed matter of oaths in his Midrash on the Mount:
"33 Again, you have heard that it was said to those of old, 'You shall not swear falsely, but shall carry out your oaths to ADONAI.' 34 But I tell you, do not swear at all—not by heaven, for it is the throne of God; 35 or by the earth, for it is the footstool of His feet; or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the Great King. 36 And do not swear by your head, for you cannot make a single hair white or black. 37 But let your word 'Yes' be 'Yes' and your 'No,' 'No'—anything more than this is from the evil one." (Matt 5:33-37 TLV)
The Torah makes it clear that vows are not mandatory, but if made God expects vows to be fulfilled,
""Whenever a man makes a vow [Heb. neder] to ADONAI or swears an oath [Heb. shebuah] to obligate himself by a pledge, he is not to violate his word but do everything coming out of his mouth" (Num 30:2 TLV)
"When you make a vow to ADONAI your God, you are not to delay to make good on it—for ADONAI your God will certainly require it of you, and you would have sin on you. 23 But if you refrain from making a vow, you would not have sin on you." (Deut 23:22-23 TLV)
God himself swore on important occasions. "'I have sworn by myself,' says ADONAI" (Gen 22:16 BR). God swore to give the land of Canaan to the seed of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (Gen 24:7; 26:3; Ex 6:8; 33:1; Deut 1:8; 6:10). God swore to multiply the seed of Abraham as the stars and the sand (Ex 32:13). God swore a perpetual covenant with Israel (Deut 4:31). God swore to establish his people as a holy people (Deut 28:9). God swore that his Messiah is high priest forever (Heb 7:21). We can be very sure that God will keep His promises.
Yeshua's words echo other writers. Solomon said, "It is better that you should not vow than that you should vow and not pay" (Eccl 5:5). Sirach 23:9, "Do not accustom your mouth to swearing oaths, and do not habitually use the name of the Holy One." Philo of Alexandria similarly recommended avoiding oaths entirely (Decalogue 84). Josephus says this virtue characterized the Essenes:
"They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury for they say that he who cannot be believed without [swearing by] God is already condemned." (Wars, II, 8:6)
However, Yeshua's prohibition of swearing is limited to particular types of oaths. Yeshua did not object to being putting under oath at his trial (Matt 26:63). The apostles employed oaths on various occasions (Acts 18:5; 21:23; 2Cor 1:23; Gal 1:20). In the Midrash on the Mount Yeshua lists four improper oaths (Matt 5:34-36; see my commentary there) and here he adds four more. However, Yeshua does not just condemn eight types of oaths, but the underlying motive, that an oath is necessary to add assurance to one’s word. The Torah envisioned making oaths in the name of God or swearing to God. Such oaths are binding. However, the hypocrites wanted an escape mechanism. They assumed that if they based the oath on a substitute phrase, and NOT God's name, the oath would not be binding and the promised action could be easily canceled.
by: Grk. en, prep. the sanctuary: Grk. naos, a term that refers to the sanctuary proper, or the holy place, wherein God himself resides, in contrast to hieros, which denotes the entire temple complex. it is: Grk. eimi, pres. See verse 8 above. nothing: Grk. oudeis, adj., a marker used to indicate negation of a person or thing as actually existing at a given place or moment; no one, none, nothing. The adjective admits no exceptions other than what is stated in the context. but: Grk. de, conj. whoever: Grk. hos. anyhow: Grk. an. should swear: Grk. omnuō, aor. subj. by: Grk. en. the gold: Grk. chrusos, the precious metal known as gold. of the sanctuary: Grk. naos. Josephus describes the impressive gold plating in the temple:
"As to the holy house itself, … Its front was covered with gold all over, and through it the first part of the house, that was more inward, did all of it appear; which, as it was very large, so did all the parts about the more inward gate appear to shine to those that saw them; but then, as the entire house was divided into two parts within, it was only the first part of it that was open to our view. Its height extended all along to ninety cubits in height, and its length was fifty cubits, and its breadth twenty. But that gate which was at this end of the first part of the house was, as we have already observed, all over covered with gold, as was its whole wall about it; it had also golden vines above it, from which clusters of grapes hung as tall as a man's height. But then this house, as it was divided into two parts, the inner part was lower than the appearance of the outer, and had golden doors of fifty-five cubits altitude, and sixteen in breadth." (Wars V, 5:3-7)
The glory of the golden vines was known even to Tacitus (AD 109) the Roman historian (The Histories 5.5). For more information on this topic see the article by Leen Ritmeyer, The Gold of the Jerusalem Temple, Ritmeyer.com, 2015. is obligated: Grk. opheilō, pres., to be under a prescribed obligation, to have a duty or to owe someone. In the LXX opheilō translates three different Hebrew words in connection with the idea of being indebted to God (Ex 16:3; Num 14:2; 20:3) and what is owed to men (Deut 15:2) (DNTT 2:666f).
17 "You foolish and you blind! For which is greater, the gold or the sanctuary having sanctified the gold?
Yeshua addresses the hypocrites with pejorative adjectives to introduce the deficient nature of their reasoning. You foolish: Grk. mōros, adj., voc., having little sense; foolish, stupid. HELPS has dull in understanding, nonsensical ("moronic"). and: Grk. kai, conj. you blind: Grk. tuphlos, adj. voc. See the previous verse. For: Grk. gar, conj. which: Grk. tís, interrogative pronoun indicating interest in establishing something definite; who, which, what, why. is: Grk. eimi, pres. See verse 8 above. greater: Grk. megas, adj. See verse 11 above. the gold: Grk. chrusos. See the previous verse. or: Grk. ē, conj. used to denote an alternative.
the sanctuary: Grk. naos. See the previous verse. having sanctified: Grk. hagiazō, aor. part. (derived from hagios, "holy"), to set apart into the realm of the sacred; set apart, dedicate, purify. BAG has when used of persons (1) to consecrate, dedicate, sanctify, (2) to treat as holy or to reverence or (3) purify. In the LXX the hagiazō renders Heb. qadash (SH-6942), to be set apart or consecrated. The Hebrew verb is used of (1) places, such as temple and houses; (2) calendar events, such as festivals and Shabbat; (3) persons, such as priests; and (4) objects, such as the sacred bread and vessels (BDB 872).
the gold: Since the gold plating had been applied in the process of the sanctuary construction then it was part of the building. The sanctuary had been set apart as holy for the worship of ADONAI. Moreover, the Jews believed that the Sh'kinah of God dwelled in the holy of holies. No part of the sanctuary could be any more holy than the rest.
18 "And 'whoever anyhow should swear by the altar, it is nothing, but whoever anyhow should swear by the gift upon it, is obligated.'
And: Grk. kai, conj. Many versions insert "you say" following the conjunction to make the point that the following statement is a quotation of certain hypocrites. whoever anyhow should swear by: This protasis clause repeats the syntax of the clause in verse 16 above verbatim. the altar: Grk. thusiastērion, an altar for sacrifice. Figuratively the altar is the meeting place between God and the true worshiper (HELPS). The noun (derived from thusiazō, to sacrifice) is found only in Jewish literature: Philo, On the Life of Moses II. §105; Josephus, Ant. VIII, 4:1; Letter of Aristeas 87; Testament of Levi 16:1; in the LXX numerous times for Heb. mizbeach (SH-4196), altar, first in Genesis 8:20. The term is used for the altar of burnt offering (Ex 30:28; Matt 5:23) and the altar of incense (Ex 30:1; Luke 1:11) in the temple.
it is: Grk. eimi, pres. See verse 8 above. nothing: Grk. oudeis, adj. See verse 16b above. but: Grk. de, conj. whoever should swear by: The protasis of the logic statement is repeated. the gift: Grk. dōron (derived from didōmi, to give) a gift, often used of a sacrificial donation. A few versions have "offering" (CJB, NASB, TLV). The noun probably refers to a personal sacrifice (cf. Lev 1:2; Matt 5:23-24; 8:4) rather than the daily required sacrifices performed by the priests. upon: Grk. epanō, adv., on the top, above, on. it: Grk. autos, neut. personal pronoun. is obligated: Grk. opheilō, pres. See verse 16 above. The hypocrites apparently made the strange claim that swearing by a sacrificial offering (why would anyone do this?) was more binding that merely swearing by the altar.
19 "You blind! For which is greater, the gift or the altar sanctifying the gift?
You blind: pl. of Grk. tuphlos, adj., voc. See verse 16 above. Since the adjective is masculine some versions insert "men." Yeshua addresses the hypocrites again in a critical manner to call attention to the spiritual blindness. For which is greater: This clause is repeated verbatim from verse 17 above. the gift: Grk. dōron. See the previous verse. or: Grk. ē, conj. the altar: Grk. thusiastērion. See the previous verse. sanctifying: Grk. hagiazō, pres. part. See verse 17 above. the gift: The argument derives from the concept of "contact holiness." In the instructions for the furnishings and vessels in the original tent of meeting, God declared that whatever touched these anointed items became holy (Ex 29:37; 30:29). Yeshua argues that the sacredness of the offering is not greater than the altar upon which it rests.
Textual Note: The M-Text begins the verse with "You fools and," which is found in a number of versions. However, the phrase is not found in the earliest MSS (GNT 90). Metzger says that the words were apparently inserted by copyists from verse 17, inasmuch as no satisfactory reason can be found to account for their deletion if they had been original.
20 Therefore the one having sworn by the altar swears by it and by all things upon it.
Yeshua presents the conclusion (through verse 22) to his logical argument that demolishes the presumption of the hypocrites. Therefore: Grk. oun, conj. See verse 3 above. the one: Grk. ho, definite article but used here as a relative pronoun. having sworn: Grk. omnuō, aor. part. See verse 16 above. by: Grk. en, prep. the altar: Grk. thusiastērion. See the verse 18 above. swears: Grk. omnuō, pres. by: Grk. en. it: Grk. autos, neut. personal pronoun. and: Grk. kai, conj. by: Grk. en. all things: pl. of Grk. pas, adj. See verse 3 above. upon: Grk. epanō, adv. See verse 18 above. it: Grk. autos.
21 And the one having sworn by the sanctuary swears by it and by the One inhabiting it.
And: Grk. kai, conj. the one: Grk. ho, definite article, but used here as a relative pronoun. having sworn: Grk. omnuō, aor. part. See verse 16 above. by: Grk. en, prep. the sanctuary: Grk. naos. See verse 16 above. swears: Grk. omnuō, pres. by: Grk. en. it: Grk. autos, personal pronoun. and: Grk. kai. by: Grk. en. the One: Grk. ho, used here as a demonstrative pronoun and substitute reference for the sacred name of God. See verse 9 above. The second use of the definite article draws a sharp contrast between the swearing hypocrite and God.
inhabiting: Grk. katoikeō, pres. part., to make a specific locale or area of residence, thus to dwell, inhabit, live in or reside. it: Grk. autos. Yeshua affirms that at this time the Sh'kinah glory of God still occupied the holy of holies. Upon his death the Sh'kinah left, signaled by the tearing of the curtain in the holy place (Matt 27:51). The Talmud affirms that the departure of the Sh'kinah occurred forty years before the destruction of the Temple by the Romans (Yoma 39b).
22 And the one having sworn by heaven swears by the throne of God and by the One sitting upon it.
And: Grk. kai, conj. the one: Grk. ho, definite article, but used here as a relative pronoun. having sworn: Grk. omnuō, aor. part. See verse 16 above. by: Grk. en, prep. heaven: Grk. ouranos. See verse 9 above. The noun is used in this verse of the third heaven. swears: Grk. omnuō, pres. by: Grk. en. the throne: Grk. thronos refers to a throne or chair upon which a king sits and in the Besekh is used for both a human seat of power (Matt 19:28) and God's seat of power (here). The throne was the official place from which the king exercised his power, authority and judgment. The term is often used figuratively in Scripture of sovereignty or dominion (DNTT 2:611-615). of God: Grk. theos, God or god, the former in this case. In the LXX theos primarily renders the name of the Creator God Elohim (2568 times), but sometimes YHVH (300 times) (DNTT 2:67-70).
Given the plural nature of Elohim the full triunity of God must be represented in theos. The only God in existence is the God who created the heavens and the earth in six days ex nihilo, "out of nothing" (Gen 1:1-31; Ex 20:11; Ps 33:9; Heb 11:3) and who chose Israel out of all the nations on the earth for a covenantal relationship (Ex 19:5; Isa 44:6; 45:5-6; 46:9). In the Besekh theos is used overwhelmingly for the God of Israel. The God of Israel is the only God there is. The deities of all other religions and cults are the product of Satan-inspired imagination. Yeshua makes the point as he did in the Sermon on the Mount that heaven itself is the throne of God (Matt 5:34).
and: Grk. kai. by: Grk. en. the One: Grk. ho, used here as a demonstrative pronoun and a substitute expression for the sacred name of God. See verse 9 above. sitting: Grk. kathēmai, pres. mid. part., be at rest on the haunches, to sit down or to take a seat. upon: Grk. epanō, adv. See verse 18 above. it: Grk. autos. In addition to heaven being the throne of God, or the seat of His government, there is an actual throne in heaven upon which God sits. The revelation that God sits on a throne was known from the time of David (Ps 11:4; 29:10; 47:8). However, it was the prophet Micaiah who gave the first eyewitness report of seeing God on His throne, "Hear, therefore, the word of ADONAI. I saw ADONAI sitting on His throne, and all the host of heaven standing by Him on His right and on His left" (1Kgs 22:19 BR).
A century later Isaiah reported, "In the year that King Uzziah died I saw Adonai sitting on a throne, high and lifted up, and the skirt of His robe filled the temple" (Isa 6:1 BR). Human minds may not be able to understand how the omnipresent God can "sit" on a throne and regard the report as so much figurative language, but the united testimony of Scripture is that God does indeed sit on a throne.
Yeshua points out that swearing by heaven, from which God rules the universe, implies making God a party to the oath and therefore having His approval of the oath, a false assumption. This kind of oath is objectionable to God (cf. Matt 5:34). The corollary is swearing by the earth (Matt 5:35).
23 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you pay tithes of mint and dill and cumin, but you have neglected the weightier matters of the Torah: judgment and mercy and faithfulness. Moreover, you were expected to do these, the others not to be neglected.
Parallel Passage: Luke 11:42
Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites: See verse 13 above. The lamentation addressed directly to the offenders is repeated verbatim. because: Grk. hoti, conj. See verse 10 above. you pay tithes: Grk. apodekatoō (from apo, "from" and dekatoō, collect/receive tithes) pres., 2p-pl., to pay a tenth of anything. The verb occurs four times in the Besekh (also Luke 11:42; 18:12; Heb 7:5). The verb is unknown in Greek literature, so it was coined by the Jewish translators of the LXX. In the LXX apodekatoō renders Heb. asar (SH-6237), to take a tenth of, to tithe, first used in Genesis 28:22 of Jacob's promise to pay a tenth of his increase to ADONAI.
Israelites were commanded to bring a tithe (tenth) of all produce and herd animals to provide support for the priests and Levites who were prohibited from owning hereditary land (Lev 27:30–33, Num 18:21-24). In addition, the Levites were to give a tenth of the tithes they received to the high priest (Num 18:26-28). A second tithe was to be brought every year and consumed by the owner in Jerusalem (Deut 14:22–27). Then another tithe was to be brought every third year for the Levite, the alien, the orphan and the widow (Deut 14:28-29). The rabbinic elaboration of the law of tithes is found in Talmud tractates Ma'aserot (Tithes) and Ma'aser Sheni (Second Tithe).
of mint: Grk. hēduosmon, a sweet-smelling garden plant, mint. The tithing of mint is not mentioned in any Jewish source (Gale 43). and: Grk. kai, conj. dill: Grk. anēthon, a garden plant (the anethum gravolense), used for seasoning; dill. The noun occurs only here in the Besekh. Tithing of dill is mentioned in Ma'aserot 4:5. and: Grk. kai. cumin: Grk. kuminon (for Heb. kammôn, Isa 28: 25, 27), a term of Phoenician origin that refers to the fruit or seed of the plant cuminum cymimum, a member of the parsley family used as a spice. Since the hypocrites were not likely farmers, the mention of these plants may imply a home garden as the source. These plants had slight value, but the requirement to tithe them may be assumed from the Torah statute, "You shall surely tithe all the produce from what you sow, which comes out of the field every year" (Deut 14:22 NASB).
but: Grk. kai. you have neglected: Grk. aphiēmi, aor., 2p-pl. See verse 13 above. The verb is used here in the sense of omitting a duty. The plural verb implies application to all the hypocrites. the weightier matters: Grk. barus, adj. See verse 4 above. The adjective is used here to describe especially important precepts. of the Torah: Grk. nomos may mean either (1) a principle or standard relating to behavior or (2) codified legislation, i.e. law. In the LXX nomos translates torah, but torah does not mean simply "law" or "laws" as the English word conveys. Torah means "direction," "teaching" or "instruction" (BDB 435f). In the Tanakh torah refers primarily to commandments, statutes and ordinances decreed by God and given to Moses.
Torah sets forth the way a person is meant to live in an ethical and moral way in order to enjoy life to the full and to please God. In the Besekh nomos can refer to (1) specific commandments given to Israel (Matt 12:5; Luke 2:22; John 8:5), (2) that plus the entire Pentateuch (John 1:45), (3) that plus the Prophets (Matt 5:17; John 1:45; 1Cor 14:21), (4) that plus the Writings (Luke 24:44; John 10:34), (5) as a synonym for Scripture (Matt 5:18; Luke 16:17; John 12:34; 15:25), and (6) universal principles derived from Scripture (Matt 22:36-40). The sixth usage is intended here. Yeshua clearly affirms the authority of the Torah.
judgment: Grk. krisis (derived from krínō, "to separate, distinguish, judge") is used primarily to mean scrutiny of conduct, either evaluation or procedure, mostly in a legal sense; judgment. Most versions render the noun as "justice," but the normal word for justice is dikaiosunē (e.g., Matt 5:20). The word krisis refers to the overall administration of justice, or jurisprudence, from which may come a positive verdict that vindicates the innocent, or more commonly, a negative verdict that condemns a breach of Torah and its perpetrator. Right judgment should result in justice. See my article Biblical Justice for the principles that God intended to guide jurisprudence.
In the LXX krisis renders primarily Heb. mishpat (SH-4941), judgment (e.g., Gen 18:19, 25; Ex 15:25; Lev 19:15; Num 35:12; Deut 1:17), which most often refers to the act of deciding a case, the decision itself, or the execution of the judgment, and in doing so providing justice (Heb. tzedaqah) to victims. Yeshua commented in other passages on various forms of injustice. First, judging was based on appearance or outward factors rather than on righteousness (John 7:24). Second, some victims of wrongdoing were simply not given a hearing. Third, the judges neglected to follow the due process rules of the Torah (Deut 1:16; 16:18-20). Some cases illustrate the contemporary injustice.
• The widow who sought justice (Luke 18:3-7). The judge had no fear of God or man, which reflects the hubris of the hypocrites. It was only the persistent pestering of the widow that finally secured justice for her.
• The woman caught in adultery (John 8:3-11; see my commentary there). The accusers did not follow the Torah statute for the alleged offense (Num 5:11-28), and they were ready to execute her without a proper trial. Yeshua challenged the accusers by saying, "He who is without sin among you let him throw the first stone at her" (John 8:7).
• Men were allowed to divorce their wives for petty or immoral reasons (Mark 10:1-12. See my commentary there.
• The blind man whom Yeshua healed was excommunicated because of his unwillingness to denounce Yeshua. (John 9:24-34; see my commentary there)
• Yeshua's adversaries twice attempted to stone him without a trial over objections to his teaching (John 8:59; 10:31).
and: Grk. kai. mercy: Grk. eleos, kindness expressed for one in need, compassion, mercy or pity. In the LXX eleos normally translates Heb. chesed (SH-2617), first in Genesis 24:12. BDB defines chesed as essentially goodness or kindness and is used of kindness of men towards men, whether in doing favors and benefits, or serving the lowly and needy. Chesed from God is manifest in a variety of forms: (1) in redemption from enemies and troubles (Ex 15:13); (2) in preservation of life from death (Ps 6:5), (3) in quickening of spiritual life (Ps 119:88, 149), (4) in redemption from sin (Ps 25:7; 51:3), and (5) in keeping the covenants with Abraham and Israel (Deut 7:9, 12; Mic 7:20) (BDB 338). All of these forms of divine chesed are conducted within the context of covenant loyalty (DNTT 2:594).
According to the prophet Micah justice and mercy are two of the three virtues that summarizes the Torah, "He has showed you, O man, what is good; and what does ADONAI require of you but to do justice [Heb. mishpat], and to love mercy [Heb. chesed], and to walk humbly with your God?" (Micah 6:8 BR). Yeshua no doubt alludes to the Micah passage in his rebuke here. In Hebraic thought man's duty of mercy is a covenant obligation based on the fact that God will show mercy only to the merciful (cf. Matt 6:14-15). Gamaliel III (3rd c.) is reported to have said, "Who is merciful to others, mercy is shown to him by Heaven, while he who is not merciful to others, mercy is not shown to him by Heaven" (Shabbath 151a).
For the hypocrites mercy in the form of acceptance and forgiveness was not to be extended to those they considered "sinners." A sinner was someone that habitually violated traditions the Pharisees held to be sacrosanct. There are a few examples of the lack of mercy shown by hypocrites:
• Pharisees shunned social contact with tax collectors and others they considered sinners and they rebuked Yeshua for eating with such persons (Matt 9:11; Luke 15:2). Yeshua countered by quoting Hosea 6:6, "For what I desire is mercy [Heb. chesed; LXX eleos]; not sacrifices" (Matt 9:13 CJB).
• In particular, Zacchaeus, the Jewish tax collector was unjustly labeled a sinner and barred from synagogue services (Luke 19:1-20). See my web article The Defamation Against Zacchaeus.
• A Pharisee invited Yeshua to dinner and during the meal a woman intruded, weeping, and anointed Yeshua's feet with perfume (Luke 7:36-39). The Pharisee was offended and described the woman as a sinner. Yeshua rebuked the Pharisee for his lack of mercy in providing customary hospitality to Yeshua (7:44), and informed the woman, "your sins have been forgiven" (7:48).
• In the story of the Good Samaritan (no doubt an actual event), Yeshua pointed out that a priest and Levite passed by an injured man and neglected to show mercy (Luke 10:30-37). Yeshua told the story in response to a question from a lawyer (scribe) about who was a neighbor.
and: Grk. kai. faithfulness: Grk. pistis incorporates two primary facets of meaning, first that which causes trust and faith, i.e., faithfulness or reliability, and second, trust or confidence in an active sense (BAG). Christian versions are divided in translating the noun as "faith" (e.g., CEB, KJV, NKJV, NLT, and NRSV) and "faithfulness" (e.g., CSB, ESV, NASB, and NIV). The use of pistis in the LXX provides important insight into the term. Pistis is used to render Heb. emun, 'faithfulness' (SH-529; BDB 53; Deut 32:20; Prov 13:17), and Heb. emunah, firmness, steadfastness, or fidelity (SH-530; BDB 53), mainly of men's faithfulness (1Sam 26:23; 2Kgs 12:15; 22:7; Jer 5:1, 3; 7:28; 9:3; Hos 2:20), but also of God's faithfulness (Ps 33:4; Lam 3:23; Hab 2:4).
The LXX usage emphasizes that the intended meaning of pistis is faithfulness. (Contrary to common interpretation, Paul regularly used pistis to mean faithfulness; see my comment on Romans 1:17). The implied criticism is that the hypocrites were not faithful to covenant expectations (cf. John 8:39, 44).
• They violated the first commandment by giving more authority to traditions than the Torah (Matt 15:3; Mark 7:8-9, 13).
• They violated the third commandment by failing to produce spiritual fruit (Luke 3:8).
• They violated the fourth commandment by persecuting Yeshua for healing on the Sabbath (Matt 12:10-14; John 5:16; 9:16).
• They violated the fifth commandment by donating material goods to the temple that should have been reserved for the care of parents (Matt 15:1-7).
• They violated the seventh commandment by lusting after other men's wives (Matt 5:27-28; 12:39; cf. Rom 7:7-8).
• They violated the eighth commandment by robbing widows (see verse 14 above).
• They violated the ninth commandment by misrepresenting God's nature and his covenantal expectations (cf. John 8:44, 55).
• They violated the tenth commandment by coveting wealth (Luke 16:14).
Moreover: Grk. de, conj. you were expected: Grk. dei, impf., impersonal verb from deō ('lack, stand in need of') and thus conveys the idea of something that's necessary, something that must or needs to happen. to do: Grk. poieō, aor. inf. See verse 3 above. these: pl. of Grk. houtos, demonstrative pronoun. See verse 14 above. The pronoun refers to the three precepts of justice, mercy and faithfulness. the others: pl. of Grk. kakeinos (from kai, "and" + ekeinos, "that one"), demonstrative pronoun used in reference to someone or something previously mentioned, here of paying tithes. not: Grk. mē, adv. See verse 3 above. to be neglected: Grk. aphiēmi, pres. inf. Stern comments that Yeshua clearly upholds keeping even the minutiae of the Law. Those who encourage Messianic Jews to stop observing the Torah are ignoring his advice both here and in his Midrash on the Mountain (Matt 5:17–20).
Additional Note: Christian Tithing
Some Christians object to tithing on the assumption that it is part of the law or Torah that Yeshua supposedly canceled. However, Yeshua did not cancel the Torah, as he plainly says (Matt 5:17-19)! Thus, the law of the tithe is still in force. One might object to tithing on the ground that it is required of Jews, but not Gentiles, but in the matter of money God makes no distinctions. An important distinguishing mark of a true disciple of Yeshua is surrender of the pocketbook (cf. Matt 19:21; Luke 12:33). Scripture teaches that those who provide ministry be supported by those who benefit from their ministry (Ex 20:15; 25:2; Jer 22:13; Matt 10:10; 1Cor 9:4-11; Gal 6:6). Indeed, early congregations were characterized by sacrificial giving (Acts 2:44-45; 1Cor 16:2; 2Cor 8:3; Php 4:14-18).
To object to tithing reflects a callow attitude that expects all the benefits of heaven with minimal commitment. Since Christians believe themselves to be "sons of Abraham" (Gal 3:7), then Abraham's example should be followed. He gave a tenth to Melchizedek, King of Salem and priest of El Elyon (Gen 14:20). Giving to Melchizedek was equivalent to giving to Yeshua (cf. Heb 6:20; 7:1-3). The action of Abraham demonstrates that tithing was practiced long before the commandments were given at Sinai, just as observing the Sabbath (Gen 2:2-3; Ex 16:23).
24 You blind guides, the ones straining out a gnat but swallowing a camel!
You blind: pl. of Grk. tuphlos, adj., voc. See verse 16 above. guides: pl. of Grk. hodēgos, voc. See verse 16 above. the ones: pl. of Grk. ho, voc., definite article but used here as a demonstrative pronoun. straining out: Grk. diulizō, pres. part., eliminate from a liquid by an extraction process; strain out, filter out. The verb is used only here in the Besekh. a gnat: Grk. kōnōps, a tiny flying insect, species undetermined, perhaps a gnat. By the criteria of Leviticus 11:41-43 the gnat would be an unclean animal. The Talmud comments that "If one eats a flea or a gnat he is an apostate" (Avodah Zarah 26b; Horayoth 11a). In Classical Greek writers, the term was used of the wine-gnat or midge that bred in fermenting and evaporating wine (Thayer). Thus, wine would be poured through a strainer before consumption to eliminate any insects.
Yeshua's point seems to be that the hypocrites condemned fellow Israelites for the most picky reasons, even the most minute infractions involving their traditions. One only needs to consider the Pharisaic definition of work that violates the Sabbath (Shabbath 7:2) to understand the extent of their legalism. The man whom Yeshua instructed to pick up his mat and walk was accused by the Judean authorities of breaking the Sabbath (John 5:10). Yeshua was accused of breaking the Sabbath by healing on that day (Matt 12:10-14; John 5:16; 9:16).
but: Grk. de, conj. swallowing: Grk. katapinō (from kata, down, and pinō, to drink), pres. part., to gulp down or swallow. a camel: Grk. kamēlos, the camel, a familiar working animal in the Middle East. In the LXX kamēlos renders Heb. gamal (SH-1581), first in Genesis 12:16. By the criteria of Leviticus 11:4 the camel is an unclean animal. The descriptive word picture is intended to represent the casuistic reasoning of the hypocrites. The point is that the hypocrites endeavored by detailed regulations to avoid the unclean, but in their spiritual blindness they became unclean by major transgression of important Torah values. Gill comments appropriately,
"These men would not, on any consideration, be guilty of such a crime, as not to pay the tithe of mint, anise, and cummin, and such like herbs and seeds; and yet made no conscience of doing justice, and showing mercy to men, or of exercising faith in God, or love to him. Just as many hypocrites, like them, make a great stir, and would appear very conscientious and scrupulous, about some little trifling things, and yet stick not, at other times, to commit the grossest enormities, and most scandalous sins in life.
ABP: The Apostolic Bible Polyglot. ed. Charles Van der Pool. Apostolic Press, 2006. An interlinear of the Septuagint with English translation. Online.
BAG: Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. trans. W.F. Arndt & F.W. Gingrich. The University of Chicago Press, 1957.
BDB: The New Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon. Oxford University Press, 1907. Reprinted by Associated Publishers and Authors, Inc., 1981. Online.
Bivin: David Bivin, New Light on the Difficult Words of Jesus: Insights from His Jewish Context. En–Gedi Resource Center, 2007.
Danker: Frederick William Danker, The Concise Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. The University of Chicago Press, 2009.
Delitzsch: Franz Delitzsch (1813-1890), Hebrew New Testament. Leipzig, 1877. Online. (Translation into biblical Hebrew.)
DM: H.E. Dana & Julius R. Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament. The Macmillan Co., 1955.
DNTT: Dictionary of New Testament Theology, 3 Vols. Colin Brown, ed. Zondervan Publishing House, 1975.
Flusser: David Flusser, The Sage from Galilee: Rediscovering Jesus' Genius. 4th ed. William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 2007.
Gale: Aaron M. Gale, Annotations on "Matthew," Jewish Annotated New Testament, eds. Amy-Jill Levine and Marc Brettler. Oxford University Press, 2011.
Geldenhuys: Norval Geldenhuys, Commentary on the Gospel of St. Luke. William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1951. (NICNT)
Gesenius: Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius (1786-1842), Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament. Trans. Samuel P. Tregelles (1846). Baker Book House, 1979. Online.
GNT: The Greek New Testament, eds. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Bruce M. Metzger, & Allen Wiegren. American Bible Society, 1966. [NA25]
Gill: John Gill (1697-1771), Exposition of the Entire Bible. Online. [Baptist Bible scholar]
HBD: Holman Bible Dictionary. Broadman and Holman Publishers, 1991. Online.
HELPS: Gleason L. Archer and Gary Hill, eds., The Discovery Bible New Testament: HELPS Word Studies. Moody Press, 1987, 2011. (Online at BibleHub.com)
Jastrow: Marcus Jastrow, Dictionary of Targumim, Talmud and Midrashic Literature. G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1903, 1926. Online.
Jeremias: Joichim Jeremias, Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus. Fortress Press, 1975.
JVL: Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2014.
Kasdan: Barney Kasdan, Matthew Presents Yeshua, King Messiah: A Messianic Commentary. Lederer Books, 2011.
Lightfoot: John Lightfoot (1602-1675), A Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica (1859 ed.), 4 Vols. Hendrickson Pub., 1989. Online.
LSJ: Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon. Revised and augmented by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. Clarendon Press, 1940. Online.
Mansoor: Menahem Mansoor, "Pharisees," Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd ed. Vol. 16. Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. pp. 30-32. Accessed 20 May 2015. Online.
Metzger: Bruce Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. 2nd ed. United Bible Societies, 1994.
Moseley: Ron Moseley, Yeshua: A Guide to the Real Jesus and the Original Church. Lederer Books, 1996.
Mounce: William D. Mounce, Mounce Concise Greek-English Dictionary of the New Testament. 2011. Online.
MW-Notes: Daniel Gruber, The Messianic Writings. Elijah Publishing, 2011. Annotations by the author.
NIBD: Nelson's Illustrated Dictionary of the Bible. Herbert Lockyer, ed. Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1986.
OCB: The Oxford Companion to the Bible. ed. Bruce M. Metzger and Michael D. Coogan. Oxford University Press, 1993.
Rashi: Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi (1040-1105), Commentary on the Tanakh. Online. (French rabbi, rabbinical judge and commentator)
Rienecker: Fritz Rienecker, A Linguistic Key to the Greek New Testament, Vol. 1. Zondervan Pub. House, 1976.
Stern: David H. Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary. 5th ed. Jewish New Testament Publications, Inc., 1996.
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