An Exegetical Commentary
Blaine Robison, M.A.
Published 30 May 2011; Revised 7 December 2012
Scripture: Bibliographic data for sources cited may be found here. The Revelation Scripture text is taken from the NASB (1977 Edition) and unless otherwise indicated other Scripture quotations are from the NASB 1995 Updated Edition. Other Bible versions are also quoted. Click here for Abbreviations of Bible Versions. Most versions can be accessed on the Internet.
Ancient Sources: Unless otherwise indicated references to the Talmud are from the Soncino Babylonian Talmud (1948); available online at Halakhah.com. Click here for Talmud Abbreviations. Works by early church fathers are available online at Christian Classics Ethereal Library or Early Christian Writings. The Septuagint (LXX) is the Jewish translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, which was in use by Jews by the mid-2nd century BC. The LXX with English translation may be found here. Citations for Josephus, the first century Jewish historian, are from The Works of Flavius Josephus (c. 75-99 A.D.). Online.
Grammar: Unless otherwise noted the meaning of Greek words is from Walter Bauer, W.F. Arndt & F.W. Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (1957), and the meaning of Hebrew words is from The New Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (1981), abbreviated as "BDB." Explanation of grammatical abbreviations and a pronunciation guide for New Testament Greek may be found here.
Terminology: In order to emphasize the Jewish nature of the apostolic canon and its central figure I use the terms Tanakh (Old Testament), Besekh (New Testament), Torah (Law), Yeshua (Jesus), and Messiah (Christ).
The Little Book (10:1-4)
1― And I saw another strong angel coming down out of heaven, clothed with a cloud; and the rainbow was upon his head, and his face was like the sun, and his feet like pillars of fire;
And I saw another strong angel: For the second time John speaks of a “strong angel,” the first being in 5:2. “Another” points to a different angel than the first one observed. How John means the reader to understand “strong” is not clear, although it could have the same meaning as in 18:21 where the strong angel picks up a stone that weighed as much as a millstone. The strength of this angel may also be connected to the extraordinary aspects of his personal appearance or the authority given him by God. Johnson associates “strong angel” with “great prince” of Daniel 12:1 and suggests the angel could be Michael, but John is not informed of the angel’s identity.
coming down out of heaven: Grk. ouranos, the area above the earth that encompasses the sky, interstellar space and associated phenomena or the transcendent dwelling-place of God (Danker). See the note on 3:12. The narrative indicates that the angel came from the dwelling place of God on a special mission. clothed: Grk. periballō means to cast about, to be clothed, to be enveloped (Rienecker). with a cloud: John does not mean the angel was without the typical white apparel of heaven. The angel was encircled by a cloud, which seems to be a common vehicle for heavenly beings to enter and leave the earth (cf. Ps 104:3; Dan 7:13; Acts 1:9). and the rainbow: Grk. iris. See 4:3 on “rainbow.”
was upon his head, and his face was like the sun: The “rainbow” John sees refers to the ordinary rainbow of many colors connected with the cloud and perhaps due in this case to the shining of the angel’s face. The metaphor of the “sun” is a comparison to indicate a degree of brightness that emanated from the angel’s face. When Moses came down the mountain from God’s presence his face shone so much as to require a veil (Ex 34:29f). Twice John experienced Yeshua with His face shining “like the sun,” first on Mount Tabor when Yeshua was transfigured (Matt 17:2) and then on Patmos (Rev 1:16). No explanation is offered in Scripture why only these four incidents of “shining faces” occur when so many people and angels have been in the presence of God. Yet, in Moses’ experience the apostle Paul saw the spiritual transformation that takes place in the believer, “But we all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as from the Lord, the Spirit” (2 Cor 3:18).
and his feet: podes, pl. of Grk. pous. like pillars: Grk. stulos. See 3:12 on “pillar.” Stern contends pous should be translated “legs” and that the word is proof of a Jewish author. In Greek pous means “foot,” and skelos means “leg,” but Hebrew has only one word, raglayim, which can mean either. Feet cannot be “like pillars,” only legs can. Either the author, thinking in Hebrew but writing in Greek, believed pous was the appropriate Greek rendering of raglayim; or the author thought and wrote in Hebrew, but someone else, equally unacquainted with Hebrew nuances, translated raglayim as podes instead of skelos. Stern indicates that this confusion still occurs in modern Israel. of fire: The final point that John makes in describing the angel is that his legs were like pillars of fire. In any event, any distinguishing features of the angel’s feet and legs were obscured by the brightness of the light. While John points out these bodily details the overall picture is that the angel was shining head to toe.
2― and he had in his hand a little book which was open. And he placed his right foot on the sea and his left on the land;
and he had in his hand a little book: Grk. biblaridion occurs nowhere else in early Greek literature and may have been coined by John (Ladd). The “little book” carried by the angel is a scroll, but much smaller than the one with seven seals. Speculations as to the contents of the little book abound, including that it contained the information in Chapter Eleven, but John does not provide any explanation to settle the matter. he placed his right foot on the sea: Grk. thalassa. See 4:6 on “sea.” The angel holding the scroll then takes up an unusual position with one foot on the water and the other on the land, perhaps emphasizing God’s sovereignty over land and sea as well as His creation of the planet (cf. verse 6 below). The use of the preposition “on the sea” (not “in the water”) indicates the angel has the same ability to walk on water as Yeshua (cf. Mark 6:48).
3― and he cried out with a loud voice, as when a lion roars; and when he had cried out, the seven peals of thunder uttered their voices.
a loud voice, as when a lion roars: Grk. mukaomai was used of a low, deep sound like the growl of a lion, the lowing of an ox or the roll of thunder (Rienecker). Suddenly the angel spoke loudly and his voice not only had volume but depth and power that John likens to the majestic and terrifying roar of a lion. (See 5:5 on “lion.”) Like other characteristics of the lion, the roar is used figuratively many times in Scripture, variously alluding to the wicked, Israel’s enemies and the power and judgment of God (Job 4:10; Ps 22:13; Prov 19:12; 28:15; Isa 5:29; Jer 2:15; 12:8; 51:38; Ezek 22:25; Hos 11:10; Joel 3:16; Amos 1:2; 3:4, 8; Zeph 3:3; 1 Pet 5:8). Ironically, the lion is only one of four big cats that can roar (the others being the tiger, leopard and jaguar) and the lion does the most roaring. A lion’s roar has enough force to be heard 5 miles away. (Tim Stoffel, Lion Facts, 20 January 2005)
As God’s spokesman perhaps the angel acted out the declaration of Amos,
“Surely the Lord God does nothing unless He reveals His secret counsel To His servants the prophets. A lion has roared! Who will not fear? The Lord God has spoken! Who can but prophesy?” (Amos 3:7f)
The angel roared and John would be given secret counsel that had to remain secret as the next verse indicates. John does not relate what word(s) the angel shouted, but it may have been in the language of angels (1 Cor 13:1) directed at the throne of heaven and John simply did not understand the message. the seven peals of thunder: lit. “the seven thunders,” (Marshall). The angel’s exclamation was immediately answered from the sky, perhaps in antiphonal fashion. Some liken the seven thunders to the seven "voices" of Psalm 29:3-9. The specification, “the seven,” indicates something different than the general sounds of thunder John had heard in 4:5 and 8:5.
4― And when the seven peals of thunder had spoken, I was about to write; and I heard a voice from heaven saying, “Seal up the things which the seven peals of thunder have spoken and do not write them.”
I was about to write: John apparently could understand the words of the seven thunders. He had writing materials available and intended to write down the words, but before he could put his pen to page a “voice from heaven,” probably the Lord’s angel (1:1), ordered him to stop. Paul had a similar experience when he was caught up to the third heaven and heard things he was not permitted to repeat (2 Cor 12:4; cf. Dan 12:9). Sometimes God tells a person more than should be repeated or can even be understood by others. Seal up: John is then commanded to “seal up” what he has heard (cf. Isaiah 8:16), which would ordinarily refer to something that had been written, but apparently it was enough that the words of the seven thunders were “written” in heaven. They did not need to be published on the earth, so John was strictly forbidden to ever reveal them. Gundry suggests that since the unsealing of the seven seals brought on judgments (6:1, 3, 5, 7, 12; 8:1), then sealing up the seven thunders causes them not to happen (27). He makes the connection with Matthew 24:21-22 where Yeshua said that the days of the tribulation would be cut off for the sake of the elect.
The seven thunders may actually serve as a preamble to the sworn statement made by the angel. The Hebrew word for swear is identical to the feminine form of the word for “seven” (TWOT, II, 899f) and there is evidence in ancient literature that it was not uncommon to seal an agreement by the number “seven.” A relationship is suggested between the two words where Abraham sealed an oath to Abimelech by giving seven ewe lambs as a witness (Gen 21:22-34), and Abraham named the well where he and Abimelech met “Beersheba” or “Well-of-the-seven-oath” (Gen 21:31). Thus, BDB gives the literal meaning of the Hebrew word “swear” as to “seven oneself, or bind oneself by seven things” (989). This ancient Hebrew practice may have a bearing on the proliferation of the number “seven” in Revelation, which is the sworn testimony of Yeshua (1:1). The Lord affirms in every way possible that His Word, and specifically the Book of the End of the Age, is utterly reliable.
The Mystery of God Finished (10:5-7)
5― And the angel whom I saw standing on the sea and on the land lifted up his right hand to heaven,
The location of the angel mentioned in verse 2 is repeated as a way of affirming the identity of the angel whom John saw. John must resort to such devices, since the names of angels are never revealed in Revelation. In solemn ceremony the angel proceeds to give sworn testimony. The practice of raising the hand to take an oath is very old (cf. Gen 14:22-23; Deut 32:40; Dan 12:7). Since Yeshua is at the right hand of the Father, lifting up the (right) hand for an oath could be a way of saying, "I speak the truth just as Yeshua is the Truth."
6― and swore by Him who lives forever and ever, WHO CREATED HEAVEN AND THE THINGS IN IT, AND THE EARTH AND THE THINGS IN IT, AND THE SEA AND THE THINGS IN IT, that there will be delay no longer,
and swore by Him: that is, by God. The common understanding of making a sworn statement is associated with affirming the veracity of a claim or offering testimony in a legal proceeding. The biblical practice meant that having bound oneself with a sacred oath the one swearing would perform some promised deed or would refrain from some evil act (Gen 14:22f; 21:23; 1 Kgs 2:8; TWOT, II, 900). In this case the angel proceeds to make an oath in the name of the One who is the First Life (for life can only have its origin in life). The preamble to the sworn statement is a reminder that the affirmation of the last clause is based upon the unalterable word of the infinite, infallible, omnipotent, omniscient, creator God.
WHO CREATED: The angel’s affirmation declares in the strongest terms that the universe and all its constituent parts only came into existence by divine decision and decree "in the beginning" (Gen 1:1). (See 4:11 on “created.”) The angel’s declaration echoes the Levitical praise, “You alone are the Lord. You have made the heavens, the heaven of heavens with all their host, the earth and all that is on it, the seas and all that is in them” (Neh 9:6). Not only did God create the heavens, the earth, the sea and all things therein, but also He “spoke” them into existence fully formed. “By the word of the Lord the heavens were made. … For He spoke, and it was done; He commanded, and it stood fast” (Ps 33:6, 9; cf. Ex 20:8-11; Ps 148:3-5). The creation claim of Scripture and the theory of evolution so loved by the world are so incompatible, contradictory and mutually exclusive that there is no system of logic that can synthesize a coherent and consistent compromise. Indeed there is no need to concede any aspect of biblical creationism, since there is no proven fact of science that poses any threat to the inspired truth of the Genesis record.
that there will be delay no longer: "Delay" is Grk. chronos, “time,” and is mostly used in the sense of a period of time or a long time. The question of Daniel (Dan 12:6) and the Revelation martyrs in the fifth seal (6:11) is "how long?" The answer is given in Daniel 12:7 and here the angelic oath declares the delay is over. The KJV renders the phrase “that there should be time no longer,” which inspired the lines in a popular hymn, “when the trumpet of the Lord shall sound and time shall be no more.” While the KJV translation is exegetically correct the concept of a “timeless eternity” is a contradiction in terms. God created time, which Einstein called the fourth dimension, “in the beginning” (Gen 1:1), and the description of God living “forever and ever” by definition is an expression of time. Moreover, time is a part of the very fabric of the triune universe, the other two elements being space and matter, and God declared that the universe would last forever (Ps 104:5; 148:1-6) (DSB). In 22:2 there also is the significant fact of time being measured in months.
Modern translations offer the view that God is saying here that the Second Advent will not be delayed any longer. Yet, this translation offers its own problems, since the Father has always known the time of the Son’s Second Advent. The timing of the Second Coming is sealed in the secret counsels of God, but if the four death angels of the sixth trumpet are prepared for a specific time (9:15), then the date of the Second Coming must already be determined (cf. Matt 24:48, 25:5 and Heb 10:37). There is no hint in the apostolic writings that the Second Advent has been put off, delayed or rescheduled. Many, though, believe that the date of the Day of the Lord is flexible and that by intercession or some other good work by the saints judgment may be delayed.
The Lord did respond to the intercession of Moses to spare the nation from judgment, although those guilty of the golden calf idolatry were still punished (Ex 32:11-14). God also promised on other occasions to cancel a planned calamity upon the repentance of a guilty city or nation (Jer 18:8; 26:3; Hos 11:8-9; Joel 2:13; Jon 3:10), and God kept His promise. However, the Day of the Lord is not an isolated event but part of a chain of events. To grant the saints the power to delay one part would of necessity affect the whole of what God revealed to John. Conversely, the day of God’s wrath cannot be hurried. Peter’s reference to “hastening” the Day in 2 Peter 3:12 has to do with the believer’s eagerness for the event rather than any ability to influence its timing.
The negative aspect of the seventh trumpet is the commencement of the seven judgments poured from bowls representing God’s fury against wickedness. There have always been scoffers who have mocked the teaching that divine judgment is coming. The Lord observed about ancient Israel, “All the sinners of My people will die by the sword, Those who say, ‘The calamity will not overtake or confront us’” (Amos 9:10). Similarly, Peter predicted,
“In the last days mockers will come with their mocking, following after their own lusts, and saying ‘Where is the promise of His coming? For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all continues just as it was from the beginning of creation. … But by His word the present heavens and earth are being reserved for fire kept for the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men.” (2 Pet 3:3f, 7)
From the standpoint of man’s finite thinking the fact that judgment has yet to occur means there will be no judgment. There may seem to be a delay to those who are bound by time, but the Lord declares that at a specific point in the future the time of grace will run out, and the scheduled judgment of God will happen.
7― but in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he is about to sound, then the mystery of God is finished, as He preached to His servants the prophets.
but in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he is about: Grk. mellō, pres. act. subj., means to be on the point of or be about to, which in this context has the sense of “when all these things are (or begin to be) accomplished” (cf. Mark 13:4; Luke 21:7). to sound: Grk. salpizō, pres. act. inf., means to sound the trumpet or to trumpet forth. The seventh angel is the only one of the seven who uses his voice as well as sound his trumpet (11:15). This is an important point. Paul prophesied,
“For the Lord himself will come down from heaven with a rousing cry, with a call from one of the ruling angels, and with God’s shofar; those who died united with the Messiah will be the first to rise; then we who are left still alive will be caught up with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air; and thus we will always be with the Lord.” (1 Thess 4:16-17 CJB)
Coupled with 1 Corinthians 15:52 these verses demonstrate apostolic unity in God’s revelation that the resurrection and gathering of the saints will take place when the seventh angel gives the signal.
mystery of God is finished: Grk. teleō, aor. pass. ind., means to bring to the goal, to complete or to bring to completion (Rienecker). The “mystery of God” is something to be completed at or just before the seventh angel uses his voice and blows his trumpet. (See 1:20 on “mystery.”) Two principal sources may be examined to understand the mystery of God. Yeshua told His disciples, “To you has been given the mystery of the kingdom of God” (Mark 4:11) and Paul declared that he came proclaiming the “mystery of God” (1 Cor 2:1, 7). The essence of the Messiah’s teaching was that the Kingdom of God had arrived in His person in fulfillment of prophecy and that acceptance of the terms of the Kingdom assured salvation for God’s covenant people, restoration of their glory and the consummation of all things under His authority (Matt 1:21; 4:17; 28:18; Luke 1:31-33). The crucifixion of Yeshua as a sacrificial offering for sins was the centerpiece of God’s plan, fashioned before creation and purposely hidden in plain sight from His own people (Mark 4:11; Luke 24:44-46; Rom 16:25). God kept His plan secret from both Gentile and Jewish leaders, because “if they had understood it they would not have crucified the Lord of glory” (1 Cor 2:8). The cross of the Messiah was critical for the consolation of Israel. However, the purposes of God were even grander than the Jews imagined.
as He preached to His servants the prophets: Grk. prophētēs, a person gifted with the ability for interpretation or revelation of matters transcending normal insight or awareness (Danker). The phrase “servants the prophets” refers to the prophets of the Tanakh through whom God gave commandments, called for repentance and revealed God's will and purpose for the nation (Jer 7:25; 25:4; 26:5; 29:19; 35:15; 44:4; Ezek 38:17; Dan 9:6, 10; Amos 3:7; Zech 1:6). However, the import of some prophecies remained concealed (Dan 12:8). Indeed, leaders in Jerusalem were incredulous to learn through Peter’s account of taking the gospel to the household of Cornelius that “God has granted to the Gentiles also the repentance that leads to life” (Acts 11:18).
The full implications of the mystery of God were revealed to the apostle Paul, who indeed wrote “things hard to understand” (2 Pet 3:16). Not only were the Gentiles “fellow heirs and fellow members of the body” through the gospel (Eph 3:6), but also God had intended to save Gentiles all along and had permitted a “partial hardening” of Israel “until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in” (Rom 11:25). Yeshua had said He had “other sheep” (John 10:16) and the gospel of the kingdom had to be offered to the nations (Matt 24:14), but the disciples did not fully understand the heavenly intention until after God’s revelation to Peter and Paul.
Combining the Lord’s words here with Romans 11:25 could explain the statement that the mystery “is finished.” In other words, the full number or full representation of Gentiles that will be saved have come into the kingdom, fulfilling the prophecy of Yeshua in Matthew 24:14, and the hardening of Israel has ended with repentance (Matt 24:3) and so “all Israel will be saved” (Rom 11:26). Only God knows when the evangelistic effort will be completed, and, since the end has obviously not occurred, the mission of spreading the gospel around the earth must continue and increase.
One final element of the mystery of God remains, the final reward for the saints. God’s plan was not only to provide redemption for all through the substitutionary atonement of Yeshua, but also to establish a new heaven, new earth and new kingdom that will last forever. The blessings of what is to come, reserved in the “heavenly realms” (Eph 1:3), is more than the human mind can comprehend, as Paul said, “Things which eye has not seen and ear has not heard, and which have not entered the heart of man, all that God has prepared for those who love Him” (1 Cor 2:9). The final piece of the mystery of God was left to share with John, so now the complete story of all that God purposed from the beginning has been revealed.
As Juster rightly observes, the fact that the “mystery of God” is not completed until “the days of the voice of the seventh angel” means that the Body of the Messiah is on the earth during the great tribulation (Juster 32). The Lord Yeshua is consistent in all His revelations. The beginning of the Lord’s earthly reign cannot occur without the gathering and resurrection of the saints, and this event cannot occur without the voice of the archangel, which also cannot occur without the mystery of the completed Bride of the Messiah being fulfilled.
The Bitter and the Sweet (10:8-11)
8― And the voice which I heard from heaven, I heard again speaking with me, and saying, “Go, take the book which is open in the hand of the angel who stands on the sea and on the land.”
The heavenly voice which John heard (10:4) and had directed him to seal what the seven thunders said now directs him to go to the angel he saw come out of heaven (10:1). John is instructed to take the open book from the angel. In Chapter Five John was shown the book of the end of the age, but he apparently did not touch it, because only the Lamb could break the seals. In similar fashion Ezekiel had a visit from a heavenly being, perhaps the Son’s personal angel, who held a book in his right hand and offered it to Ezekiel (Ezek 2:9-10).
9― And I went to the angel, telling him to give me the little book. And he said to me, “Take it and eat it; and it will make your stomach bitter, but in your mouth it will be sweet as honey.”
The metaphor of "eating" God’s word refers to mentally absorbing, meditating on and understanding the truth presented (cf. Ps 119:103; Jer 15:16). The sweetness of God’s word was first mentioned by David (Ps 19:10; 119:103). Barclay relates that David’s words reflected a Jewish educational practice that served as a reward for learning. A child would be given a slate with the alphabet written on it in a mixture of flour and honey. After the original instruction, the teacher would point at a letter and ask, “What is that and how does it sound?” If the boy could answer correctly, he was allowed to lick the letter off the slate as a reward. For John, as Ezekiel, the “eating” is not a metaphor but an actual experience (cf. Ezek 3:1-3).
How the word from God can be sweet as honey in the mouth but bitter in the stomach is puzzling. It may mean that, though proclaiming God’s word is sweet, rejection by unbelievers makes the experience bitter. John was given a revelation that was sweet, but most of the congregations that received the message eventually ignored its warnings. Ladd points out that the word of God is both sweet and bitter, for it contains the message of salvation and the message of judgment. The concept of “bitter” is used frequently in Scripture to describe sorrow or suffering that arises from tragedy. The scroll Ezekiel saw contained “lamentations, mourning and woe” (Ezek 2:10). In the third trumpet judgment (Rev 8:11) people die from bitter waters. Thus, God enabled John to feel how God feels when people reject His message of salvation. Yeshua wept over Jerusalem (Matt 23:37-38; Luke 19:41). Unlike some people, God takes no delight in the death of anyone (Ezek 18:32).
10― And I took the little book out of the angel’s hand and ate it, and it was in my mouth sweet as honey; and when I had eaten it, my stomach was made bitter.
John immediately obeys the heavenly command. In this case the “eating” may have been more than just a metaphor, considering how John describes his action and experience. After all, John could have said that he “read” it. John accepts the little book and in following the angel’s instruction he finds that the book is actually edible. And, true to the angel’s prediction, the reaction of the taste buds made the eating very pleasant followed by a very bitter, perhaps even nauseous, reaction in his abdomen. When Ezekiel ate the scroll he was given he only reported the sweetness (Ezek 3:3), but Jeremiah expresses the same paradoxical experience of John,
“Your words were found and I ate them, and Your words became for me a joy and the delight of my heart; for I have been called by Your name, O Lord God of hosts. I did not sit in the circle of merrymakers, nor did I exult. Because of Your hand upon me I sat alone, for You filled me with indignation.” (Jer 15:16-17)
11― And they said to me, “You must prophesy again concerning many peoples and nations and tongues and kings.”
John’s experience with the little book closes with an assurance from the heavenly voice and the strong angel that he is going to get off that hunk of Mediterranean rock. His fearless proclamation of God’s Word had resulted in his imposed “holiday in the sun,” but now he is told that he will prophesy again. The phrase “prophesy again concerning…” renders a Hebrew idiom “to prophesy in regard to” (Ladd). That is, John’s prophetic message does not concern just one nation, but many. John is under divine compulsion to declare the judgments that are about to befall the entire world (cf. 1 Cor 9:16). This is no doubt emphasized because of natural reluctance to deliver bad news. However, John’s ministry will encompass "peoples, nations, tongues and tribes," a phrase that occurs five times in Revelation. (See 5:9 on these categories.) In this list "kings" takes the place of tribes and may be a reference to the kings of 17:10 and 17:12. Victorinus provides this historical perspective:
"John said these things he was on the island of Patmos…. There, therefore, he saw the Apocalypse; and when grown old, he thought that he should at length receive his quittance by suffering, Domitian being killed, all his judgments were discharged. And John being dismissed from the mines, thus subsequently delivered the same Apocalypse which he had received from God.”
The date of John’s sojourn on Patmos is uncertain, but accepting the date during the reign of Domitian John lived only a few more years. Jerome says that John died in the 68th year after the Lord’s passion, which would be the same year that Trajan became emperor (Jerome, Lives of Illustrious Men, 9). One can imagine John traveling to the congregations of Asia to recount his apocalyptic experience and reinforce the urgent messages of the Spirit. Yet, John’s prophetic ministry continued and increased down through the centuries to this present day. The message of Yeshua through John has truly gone out to many peoples, nations, language groups and even political leaders around the earth. Pastors, teachers and missionaries who have faithfully taught the faith with the assurance of the Second Advent are part of the legacy of John’s ministry.
Copyright © 2011-2012 Blaine Robison. All rights reserved.