An Exegetical Commentary
Blaine Robison, M.A.
Published 18 November 2010; Revised 24 May 2022
Scripture Text: The Scripture text used in this commentary is prepared by Blaine Robison and based on the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament. The essentially literal translation seeks to reflect the Jewish character of the author and writing. All other Scripture quotations are from the NASB Updated Edition (1995), unless otherwise indicated. Click here for Abbreviations of Bible Versions. Quotations marked with the initials "BR" indicate the translation of the commentary author.
Sources: Bibliographic data for works cited may be found at the end of the chapter commentary. Works without page numbers are cited ad loc. Important early Jewish sources include the following:
● DSS: the Dead Sea Scrolls, a collection of Jewish manuscripts of Scripture and sectarian documents found in the Qumran caves. Most of the Qumran MSS belong to the last three centuries B.C. and the first century A.D. Online DSS Bible.
● LXX: The abbreviation "LXX" ("70") stands for the Septuagint, the Jewish translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, in use among Jews by the mid-2nd century B.C. Online.
● Josephus: The Works of Flavius Josephus (c. 75–99 A.D.), Jewish historian, trans. William Whiston (1737). Online.
● Philo: Works by Philo Judaeus of Alexandria, the Jewish philosopher (20 B.C.─A.D. 50), consisting of 45 monographs. Online.
● MT: The Masoretic Text is the authoritative Hebrew text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism. Work on developing a uniform Hebrew Bible began under Rabbi Akiva (2nd c. A.D.), but completed by scholars known as the Masoretes between the 7th and 10th centuries A.D. The oldest extant manuscripts date from the 9th century. Online.
Syntax: Unless otherwise noted the meaning of Greek words is from F.W. Danker, The Concise Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (2009). The meaning of Hebrew words is from The New Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (1981), abbreviated as "BDB;" online at BibleHub.com. See the Greek Guide for the meaning of grammar abbreviations. Strong's Exhaustive Concordance reference numbers are identified with "SH" for Hebrew and "SG" for Greek. Strong's Online. Parsing data for Greek words is taken from Fritz Rienecker, A Linguistic Key to the Greek New Testament, 1980.
Terminology: In order to emphasize the Jewish nature of the apostolic canon and its central figure I use the terms Tanakh (Old Testament), Besekh (New Testament), Torah (Law), Yeshua (Jesus), and Messiah (Christ).
Israelology: God’s Covenant Faithfulness, 9:1–11:36 (cont.)
In Chapter Ten Paul continues to explain God's dealings with His covenant people, the nation of Israel. Paul repeats his desire and earnest prayer for the full salvation of Israel (1). He notes that though zeal characterizes the nation's religious leaders, such zeal was not according to knowledge (2). Thus they rejected the righteousness of God while trying to establish their own righteousness. But Paul explains that Yeshua is the goal of the Torah for righteousness (3-4).
The righteousness God offers is based upon faithfulness in Messiah, not self-effort, such as the accomplishment of some great feat, and built on the confession that Yeshua is Lord, and that God resurrected Him from death (5-10). As foretold by Scripture, it is offered to all, both orthodox Jew and Hellenists (11-13). Paul then returns to the literary device of introducing six rhetorical questions posed by a fictive objector (14-19), all intended to justify the refusal of Jewish leaders to heed the message of God and accept Yeshua as the Messiah.
Paul answers all six objections in a powerful response (18-21). He first quotes David to affirm that Israel had received the general revelation of the Messiah in the stars. Paul then quotes Moses who predicted that the day would come when God would provoke Israel to zealousness by another people. Lastly, Paul quotes Isaiah to say that God was found by those who did not seek Him and He continued to reach out to Israel in covenant faithfulness, even as Israel's leaders were rebelling against Him.
The Pursuit of Righteousness, 10:1-7
The Provision for Salvation, 10:8-15
The Persistence of God, 10:16-21
The Pursuit of Righteousness, 10:1-7
1― Brothers and sisters, indeed the desire of my heart and earnest prayer to God on behalf of them is for salvation.
The opening of chapter ten continues a line of argument from the previous chapter.
Brothers and sisters: pl. of Grk. adelphos, voc., lit. "of the same womb," and in secular Greek meant "brother." Adelphos primarily refers to blood siblings or fellow Israelites. In the LXX adelphos renders Heb. ach, a male sibling, whether of mother or father (first in Gen 4:2), a blood relative (Gen 13:8), member of the same tribe (Num 16:10), and members of the same people group that share the same ancestor (Gen 9:5; Ex 2:11). Usage in the Besekh has the same range of meaning as the Hebrew ach. So adelphos primarily refers to blood siblings, relatives or fellow descendants of Jacob (Matt 4:18; 5:22-24; Mark 3:22; Acts 1:14; 3:22; 7:13; 1Cor 1:1).
Generally Christian interpreters treat the plural adelphos in the apostolic letters as meaning "fellow Christians" (which would include Gentiles) and fail to recognize that the use of the plural adelphos hints at the primarily Jewish constituency of congregations in the apostolic era. Concerning the constituency of congregations in the apostolic era see my web article The Apostolic Community. At the same time the use of "brothers" expresses not only the family bond, but also the spiritual bond as Paul anticipates having to say some hard things.
The plural vocative case (direct address) is translated here as "brothers and sisters" given that he is addressing the entire congregation. Danker comments that it is inconceivable that the vocative case would not include the women, given the amount of instructional and hortatory material in the letter. Several versions also have "brothers and sisters" (AMP, CEB, CSB, GW, NOG, NASB-2020, NCV, NET, NIV, NLT, NRSV, TLV). Paul uses the plural form of address ten times in this letter. This is a tactful approach in exercising his apostolic authority as well as expressing his affection for them on the ground of their shared bond in Yeshua.
indeed: Grk. mén, affirming particle used in introducing contrasting clauses; indeed, on the one hand, now. Almost all versions omit translation of this particle. the desire: Grk. ho eudokia, consideration of what is good and therefore worthy of choice; decision, intention or good will. Rienecker adds that the desire is usually directed toward something that causes satisfaction or favor. of my: Grk. emos, an emphatic possessive pronoun for the first person (Thayer); my, mine. heart: Grk. ho kardia, the pumplike organ of blood circulation, used as metaphorically of selfhood or the combination of character, emotion, intelligence and the will. In the LXX kardia renders Heb. lebab (SH-3824), inner man, mind, heart, will (DNTT 2:181). In Hebraic thought the "heart" may stand for the whole person.
and: Grk. kai, conj. that marks a connection or addition. Kai has three basic uses: (1) continuative – and, also, even; (2) adversative – and yet, but, however; or (3) intensive – certainly, indeed, in fact, really, verily, yea (DM 250f). The first use applies here. Kai is used in the LXX to translate the vav (ו) character added to words for conjunctive effect.
earnest prayer: Grk. deēsis, to ask, pray, plead or to beg because of standing in need of something; prayer, petition, entreaty, supplication. In the Besekh the term is always used of a request to the God of Israel for meeting a need (e.g., Eph 6:18). In the LXX deēsis is used to translate several Heb. words but with the essential meaning of supplication or earnest prayer (even begging or crying out) for oneself or intercession for another (e.g., 1Kgs 8:28; 9:3; Ps 6:9; 17:1; 28:2; 31:22; 34:17; 39:12; 55:1; 61:1). to: Grk. pros, prep., lit. "near or facing" (DM 110). Since the noun following is in the accusative case, then pros would have the meaning of "to" or "toward."
God: Grk. ho theos, properly, God, the Creator and owner of all things (John 1:1-3). The definite article probably signifies "the one called." In the LXX the singular theos translates the plural Heb. Elohim (SH-430), when used of the true God, the God of creation (Gen 1:1). In Hebrew thought the plural form represents fullness (DNTT 2:67), which excludes the possible existence of any other deity (Isa 44:6; 45:5-6; 46:9). Also, theos is not a philosophical construct for monotheism. God is a Person, and for Paul He is the God of Israel (Acts 13:17). The God of Israel is the only God there is.
For Paul theos continues to represent the Creator and God of Israel who provided the blessings mentioned in the previous chapter: the adoption, the glory, the covenants, the Torah, the worship, the promises of offspring and the Land, the patriarchs and the Messiah. Over and over in the Tanakh God promised that He would never forsake Israel and Paul affirms the fact in this letter (11:1-2). In fact, God declared that there is a better chance of the universe blowing up than that He would renege on His promises to Israel (Jer 33:25-26).
Yet, for centuries Christianity has worshipped a promise-breaking God, claiming that God had permanently rejected Israel in spite of biblical evidence to the contrary. The promise-keeping God of Israel is the God to whom Paul prays earnestly for Israel.
on behalf of: Grk. huper, prep., lit. "over, above," used to express a stance of concern or interest relating to someone or something, here emphasizing an intercessory and supportive aspect; for, in behalf of, in the interest of. them: pl. of Grk. autos, personal pronoun used to distinguish a person or thing from or contrast it with another, or to give him (it) emphatic prominence. The pronoun may mean (1) self, (2) he, she, it, or (3) the same. The second meaning applies here. The plural noun refers back to the mention of Israel in 9:31, which Paul defines as those "pursuing a law of righteousness;" i.e., the religious elite of the nation. See the Textual Note below. Paul views his intercession as a priestly role (cf. Rom 15:16).
is for: Grk. eis, with the root meaning of "in, within" (DM 103), generally focuses on motion or entrance, frequently in relation to direction and limit; into, to, towards. The preposition is used here to emphasize what is for one's benefit; for. salvation: Grk. sōtēria means rescue, deliverance, preservation or salvation from physical harm (Luke 1:71; Php 1:19), but often from God's wrath (1Th 5:9). The context of this important theological term is the loss of freedom. The rescue can only be accomplished by the intervention of the God of Israel, and his agent to accomplish deliverance is the Messiah. As a spiritual act salvation includes the provision of forgiveness of sins (Luke 1:77).
In the LXX sōtēria translates first Heb. shalom (SH-7965), peace, safety (Gen 26:31; 28:21; 44:17), but then six different terms derived from the verb yasha (SH-3467), to deliver, primarily yeshu'ah (SH-3444, over 70 times), deliverance, salvation, victory (Gen 49:18; Ex 14:13; Ps 3:8) and teshu'ah (SH-8668, over 30 times), deliverance, salvation (Jdg 15:18; 1Sam 11:13; Isa 45:17) (DNTT 3:206). The yasha word-group generally depicts physical rescue by God, especially from oppression or external evils, often through human agency.
In the Tanakh the Hebrew concept of salvation also included the spiritual idea of having sins forgiven (e.g., Ps 51:14; 79:9; Ezek 37:23). God's mercy in providing salvation depends on contrition and repentance (Ps 51:5-12; Isa 30:15; 45:22; 59:1-2). In the Besekh sōtēria is deliverance from both the curse and consequences of sin. Salvation is sometimes spoken of as a present experience (1Cor 1:18; Eph 2:5; Titus 3:5), but is especially a future expectation to be fulfilled when Yeshua returns (Matt 24:13; 2Tim 2:10; Rev 19:1). Salvation is both individual and national in reference to Israel (Rom 11:26).
While an important concern to Jews of Paul's time was deliverance from the Romans and reestablishment of Israel as an independent nation (cf. Acts 1:6), Paul had learned from experience that spiritual deliverance was of far greater concern to God and absolutely essential to the future of Israel.
A number of versions (e.g., AMP, CEB, CEV, CJB, ERV, EHV, JUB, KJV, MSG, MJLT, NET, NIV, NKJV, NLT, NMB, TLV) substitute "Israel" for the pronoun "them," even though the name does not occur in the earliest, best and majority of manuscripts. The presence of the name in some late manuscripts and the Textus Receptus may have occurred when this verse was made the beginning of a lesson read in church services (Metzger).
2― For I testify about them that they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge.
For: Grk. gar, conj., is generally accepted as a contraction of ge ("yet") and ara ("then"), and in a broad sense means "certainly it follows that." Gar often functions to connect statements in narratives with preceding statements and is normally translated "for." I testify: Grk. martureō, pres., to bear witness, be a witness or testify concerning something. In legal usage the term meant that which the witness declares or confirms to be factual. about them: pl. of Grk. autos, personal pronoun. See the previous verse. Again Paul refers to the non-believing Jewish religious leaders that "pursued a law of righteousness."
that: Grk. hoti, conj. that serves as a link between two sets of data, whether (1) defining a demonstrative pronoun; that; (2) introducing a subordinate clause as complementary of a preceding verb; (3) introducing a direct quotation and functioning as quotation marks; or (4) indicating causality with an inferential aspect; for, because, inasmuch as. The second usage applies here. they have: Grk. echō, pres., to possess with the implication of the object being under one's control or at one's disposal. The present tense of the verb indicates a contemporary and ongoing activity.
a zeal: Grk. zēlos, a passionate interest or intense interest in something or someone, which can manifest itself positively or negatively. In the LXX zēlos translates Heb. qinah (SH-7068), ardor, zeal or jealousy, from the color produced in the face by deep emotion (BDB 888). for God: Grk. theos, the God of Israel. See the previous verse. The genitive case of theos (lit. "of God") is an objective genitive, meaning that God receives the action of devotion. Perhaps the most passionate of Jews for God were the Zealots, a theocratic party dating from 6 BC that resisted Roman rule, sometimes with violence. One of Yeshua's disciples, Simon, belonged to this party (Matt 10:4).
Jewish leaders in both the temple (Acts 5:17) and synagogue (Acts 13:45) are characterized by "zeal for God" and not in a positive sense. Pharisee leaders demanded absolute conformity to their traditions and practices. We should consider Paul's own testimony about himself prior to meeting Yeshua.
"I was advancing in Judaism above many contemporaries in my nation, being exceedingly zealous of the traditions of my fathers" (Gal 1:14 BR).
Paul also admits that in that phase of his life he did many things hostile to the name of Yeshua (Acts 26:9). Indeed his "zeal for God" motivated his persecution of Yeshua followers before his transformation on the Damascus Road (Php 3:6). However, Paul didn't stop being zealous for God after his meeting Yeshua. In his defense sermon at the Temple following his arrest he asserted,
"I am a man, a traditional Jew, having been born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but having been educated in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, having been instructed according to the exactness of our fathers' torah, being a zealous one of God just as you all are today." (Acts 22:3 BR). (NOTE: "our father's torah" = the traditions of the Judean Sages.)
but: Grk. alla, conj. used adverbially suggesting other matter or varying viewpoint for consideration. The nuance of contrast may be expressed with "but, on the other hand, yet, nevertheless, indeed or certainly." not: Grk. ou, adv., a particle that makes a strong denial or negation of an alleged fact or proposition (DM 264). according to: Grk. kata, prep., with the root meaning of "down," may be used to signify (1) direction, 'against, down;' (2) opposition, 'against;' or (3) conformity, 'according to, by means of.' The third usage is intended here (DM 107).
knowledge: Grk. epiknōsis, knowledge, with the connotation of personal acquaintance, insight or perception. Paul may be offering a contrast with himself. The unbelieving Judean Jews did not possess a personal relational knowledge of the Messiah or the Father (John 8:19) and thus their zeal was deficient. Before his life-changing experience Paul thought of himself as an expert in understanding what God wanted. True knowledge is realizing how much you don't know.
The analysis of "zeal not according to knowledge" might also imply not being personally acquainted with the content of the written Torah. In the process of Jewish education boys began studying the Torah interpretations and traditions of the Sages at age fifteen" (Avot 5:21). In other words the focus was on what the Sages said Moses taught and not on what Moses actually said. Indeed, Yeshua noted that the Pharisees essentially "uprooted the Scriptures" by giving greater weight to their traditions than to the written Torah (cf. Matt 15:3; Mark 7:13). See the article Rabbinic Judaism by Daniel Gruber at elijahnet.net.
3― For being ignorant of the righteousness of God and seeking to establish their own, they did not submit to the righteousness of God.
For: Grk. gar, conj. The structure of the argument is of critical importance. Verses 3, 4 and 5 each start with the word "for" and creates a chain of nested explanations—verse 3 explains verse 2, verse 4 explains verse 3, and verses 5–10 explain verse 4 (Stern). being ignorant of: Grk. agnoeō, pres. part., to be without knowledge of something, to be ignorant or uninformed. the righteousness: Grk. ho dikaiosunē, a state that is in accord with standards for acceptable or anticipated behavior, uprightness, righteousness, justice.
In the LXX dikaiosunē normally renders Heb. tsedaqah (SH-6666), first used in Genesis 15:6 of Abraham's faithfulness being considered as righteousness. The noun is often used to describe the character of God (Ps 5:8; 35:24; Isa 5:16; 42:21; Jer 9:24), as well as the Davidic king, the Messiah (Ps 72:1; Jer 23:5) (DNTT 3:354). In the Tanakh the concept of tsedaqah refers to right or ethical character and behavior that is in keeping with the covenantal relationship with God. So, righteousness is more relational than legal. Tsedaqah also carries the sense of salvation (deliverance) and judgment (justice).
of God: Grk. ho theos, the God of Israel. See verse 1 above. The phrase "righteousness of God" might be a subjective genitive that stresses the character of God, or an objective genitive that refers to the standard of the Torah. Properly speaking the Torah contains three codes:
● The holiness code, which comprises over half of the commandments in the Torah, details requirements for worship, Sabbath observance, the priesthood, offerings, circumcision, annual feasts, dietary rules, and distinctive religious customs that mark Israel as a people "holy to ADONAI." The first four of the Ten Commandments are the major titles of the holiness code.
● The righteousness code includes those commandments that mandate conduct which strengthen the cohesiveness of families and societal relationships or prohibit harmful conduct toward others in the community. The last six of the Ten Commandments are the titles of the righteousness code.
● The justice code provides for actions to be taken by individuals and the community whenever any of the commandments were broken (e.g., Ex 22−23).
To be ignorant of the righteousness of God may imply a lack of knowledge of how God is righteous or how God defines righteousness in the written Scriptures or both. and: Grk. kai, conj. seeking: Grk. zēteō, pres. part., may mean (1) be on the search for in order to find someone or something one has difficulty in locating; seek, look for; (2) search for ways to satisfy an interest; deliberate, discuss; (3) have an interest in; desire, seek; or (4) press for; expect, demand. The second meaning applies here.
to establish: Grk. histēmi, aor. inf., may mean (1) cause to be in a place or position; set, place, make stand; or (2) be in an upright position, typically of bodily posture. their own: Grk. ho idios, adj., belonging to oneself distinct from what belongs to another, one's own. These zealous Jews, consisting of Pharisees and other likeminded parties, had a good motive for the most part. They wanted to be thought of as righteous people. Among Pharisees righteousness was manifested especially by almsgiving, long prayers, twice-weekly fasting and tithing (Matt 6:1-6, 16-18; 23:14, 23; Luke 18:12).
Pharisees also created a rigorous set of rules that replaced the simple standard of the Torah, such as the thirty-nine categories of "work" prohibited on the Sabbath (Shabbat 7:2). Peter critiqued the Pharisaic code at the Jerusalem Council as "a yoke which neither our fathers nor we have been able to bear" (Acts 15:10). Although Paul was a Pharisee and lived by that strict code he nonetheless returned to the Torah concept of righteousness as Yeshua set forth in the Sermon on the Mount, and insisted that true righteousness is grounded in the covenantal relationship.
they did not: Grk. ou, adv. submit: Grk. hupotassō (from hupo, "under" and tassō, "to arrange"), aor pass., 3p-pl., to be in compliance with requirements of order; to subordinate oneself to higher authority; to be in subjection to. Hupotassō originated as a military term where a rank structure is clearly defined (DNTT 1:476). All disciples are expected to live in submission to God and his Messiah (Eph 4:24; Heb 12:9; Jas 4:7). It is out of this basic submission to God that the apostles could command submission in various human relationships.
to the righteousness: Grk. ho dikaiosunē. of God: Grk. ho theos. Paul repeats the phrase from the first half of the verse and essentially repeats his point in 9:32. Since the zealous ones based their pursuit of righteousness on ignorance and self-effort instead of a relationship of heart-felt trust, then they programmed themselves to failure.
For: Grk. gar, conj. the goal: Grk. telos may refer to (1) the termination or cessation of something; (2) the last part or conclusion of something; or (3) the goal toward which a movement is directed (BAG). In Classical Greek literature the term had a wide variety of uses, including completion of intellectual development, the ratification of a law, and to make someone's word come true. See the complete list in LSJ. HELPS says the root (tel-) means "reaching the end (aim)," and illustrates this point by contrasting with the old maritime telescope, which extended out one stage at a time to function at full-strength.
In the Greek religious sphere telos reflected the belief of deity as the beginning and end of all things. Telos embraced the totality of a deity's works. Anything that reaches its telos is complete or perfect. In Greek philosophy telos has the primary meaning of goal and meant "full realization, highest point or ideal." In Plato and Aristotle telos is an ethical goal (DNTT 2:59f). Telos occurs 150 times in the LXX, chiefly in adverbial combinations and often to translate the Heb. qēts (SH-7093), "end" (DNTT 2:60). The Hebrew word qēts is most often used of time, especially in phrases that speak of the end of a definite time period (e.g., Gen 8:6; 2Sam 15:7; 2Kgs 18:3) (BDB 893).
Danker defines telos as "end," and interprets its use in this context as a completion. The great majority of Bible versions translate telos as "end," which implies termination. In addition, these Bible versions ignore the word order of the verse. The verse actually begins with "For telos," NOT "For Christos." Only a small number of versions translate telos appropriately as "goal" (CEB, CJB, MJLT, MW, NTE, OJB, TLV).
of Torah: Grk. nomos may mean either (1) a principle or standard relating to behavior or (2) codified legislation, i.e. law. The usage of nomos in the Besekh has a much deeper meaning. In the LXX nomos translates torah, but torah does not mean simply "law" or "laws" as the English word conveys. Torah means "direction," "teaching" or "instruction" (BDB 435f) and in the Tanakh torah refers primarily to commandments, statutes and ordinances decreed by God and given to Moses. In normal Jewish usage in the time of Yeshua Torah had a variety of specific applications. Torah could mean:
• the commandments, ordinances and statutes given through
Moses to the nation of Israel (e.g., Matt 12:5; Luke 2:22-27; John 1:17; 8:5;
Jas 2:11); OR
Paul could have used nomos as synonymous with "Scripture," since the Messiah is prophesied throughout the Tanakh, but considering the rest of his statement here he more likely intended the body of instruction given to Israel through Moses. For a detailed analysis of Paul's assertion see my article The Telos of the Torah.
is Messiah: Grk. Christos (from chriō, "to anoint with olive oil"), the expected fulfiller of the hopes of Israel for an end-time deliverer, the Anointed One or Messiah. Christos is a royal title, not a last name. Jewish translators of the LXX chose Christos to translate Heb. Mashiach (SH-4899), "Anointed One," and in the Tanakh Mashiach is used for the Messiah (Ps 2:2; Dan 9:25-26). Jewish anticipation of the Messiah was grounded in the future hope expressed by the Hebrew prophets of one who would fulfill the promises made to the patriarchs and to Israel (Luke 1:32, 68-74; Acts 13:32-34). For more discussion of the Jewish hope and expectation of the Messiah see my article The Messiah.
Popular Christian interpretation of this verse is that Yeshua "ended the Law," that is, ended the authority of the commandments God gave to Israel. The false viewpoint seeks to put words in Paul's mouth. He simply does not say "Messiah ended the Torah." Indeed, the false translation and false interpretation of this verse flies in the face of Yeshua's own claim that he did not come to annul the Torah (Matt 5:17-19). It's a sad fact that many Christians don't want to be bound by God's commandments, just as the ancient Israelites (cf. Jdg 17:6; 21:25). Thus, the view that the Torah has been canceled reflects an antinomian bias, is patently in error and alien to Paul's message.
unto: Grk. eis, prep., lit. "into." righteousness: Grk. dikaiosunē. See the previous verse. The phrase "unto righteousness" means the manner and quality of life that God desires and which He has defined in the Torah. to everyone: Grk. pas, adj., comprehensive in scope but without statistical emphasis, all, every. The adjective does not leave any out. trusting: Grk. ho pisteuō, pres. part., to have confidence or faith in the reliability or trustworthiness of some thing or someone. The Hebrew concept of believing is not an intellectual agreement with a philosophical proposition or a formal creed. The verb describes the action of the person and stresses both attitude and behavior.
In the LXX pisteuō translates the Heb. 'aman (SH-539), which means to confirm or support, as well as to be true, reliable or faithful, and to stand firm or trust (BDB 52). In the Hebrew concept believing, trusting and being faithful are inseparable (cf. Matt 7:21; Heb 11:6). The benefit of Messiah being telos of the Torah is for those who trust in him. Paul alludes to his opening argument in 1:17 that the "righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith," that is, God revealed his righteousness by His faithfulness to His people Israel and to the faithful remnant.
5― For Moses writes of the righteousness from Torah that, 'the person having done these things will live by them.'
Reference: Leviticus 18:5.
For: Grk. gar, conj. Moses: Grk. Mōusēs transliterates Heb. Mosheh (Ex 2:10). Born about 1525 BC in Egypt there is no greater figure in the Tanakh than Moses. The story of Moses is found in the extensive narratives from Exodus 1:1 through Deuteronomy 34:1. His life can be easily divided into three 40-year periods, the first being his birth and early life in Egypt (Acts 7:23), the second his years in Midian (Acts 7:30), and the third from the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt through the years spent in the wilderness until his death (Ex 7:7; 16:35; Num 14:33; Deut 2:7; Josh 5:6; Acts 7:36).
During the last third of his life Moses served Israel as deliverer, judge, mediator, lawgiver, priest, elder, prophet and scribe. Moses was a devout and godly man, anointed by the Spirit. He died at the age of 120 in the land of Moab (Deut 34:1-7). However, Moses' death was not the end of his importance or influence, because Scripture asserts that Moses compiled, wrote and/or edited the five books attributed to his name (Matt 22:24; Mark 12:19; Luke 16:29; 24:27, 44). Moses left Israel and the Body of Messiah with the rich legacy of God's Word. Moses was a giant of a man. For a summary of his life and deeds see my article Moses, Servant of God.
writes: Grk. graphō, pres., to write or inscribe, generally in reference to a document. In the LXX graphō translates Heb. kathab (SH-3789), to write, first in Exodus 24:4, "And Moses wrote all the words of ADONAI." The Torah itself acknowledges Moses as the one who wrote the words contained therein (Ex 17:14; 19:7; 24:4; 34:28; Deut 28:58, 61; 31:9, 22). The present tense is used to heighten the drama of the quotation. Paul quotes or alludes to the Torah from Moses in verses 5-7. If Yeshua terminated or canceled the Torah, then what is the point of explaining what Moses taught about the Torah?
of the righteousness: Grk. ho dikaiosunē. See verse 3 above. from: Grk. ek, prep. denoting derivation or separation, here the former; lit. "out of, from within." Torah: Grk. nomos. See the previous verse. Many of the instructions in the Torah either define standards of righteous behavior or provide remedies for the administration of justice when those standards are violated. that: Grk. hoti, conj. See verse 2 above. The conjunction is used here to introduce a quotation from Scripture, Leviticus 18:5,"You are to observe my laws and rulings; if a person does them, he will have life through them; I am ADONAI" (CJB).
the person: Grk. ho anthrōpos, human being, man, or mankind. In the LXX anthrōpos translates three Hebrew words: (1) adam (Gen 1:26-27); (2) ish (Gen 2:23-24) and (3) enosh (Ps 8:4-5), with the same range of meaning (DNTT 2:564). The noun has a broad usage here. having done: Grk. poieō, aor. part., a verb of physical action that may refer to (1) producing something material; make, construct, produce, create; or (2) to be active in bringing about a state of condition; do, act, perform, work. The second meaning applies here. In the LXX poieō renders chiefly Heb. asah (SH-6213), accomplish, do, make, work (first in Gen 1:7), and used of a wide range of human and divine activity.
these things: n. 3p-pl. of Grk. autos, personal pronoun. See verse 1 above. The pronoun alludes to the acts of righteousness required by God and defined in the Torah. will live: Grk. zaō, fut. mid., be in the state of being alive in a physical sense. In the LXX zaō translates the Heb. adjective chay (SH-2416), alive, living, used for animal and human life (Gen 1:20; 3:20); the verb chayay (SH-2425), live, revive, save life (Gen 3:22; Ex 33:20); and the verb chayah (SH-2421), live, which appears often in texts describing how long someone lived (Gen 5:21) and in other passages as a reward of God for righteousness (Prov 4:4).
In this passage the present tense of zaō may have a dual sense indicating the immediate as well as the future. by: Grk. en, prep. generally used to mark position, "in" or "within," but with the dative case of the noun following the preposition denotes means; by, by means of (DM 105). them: pl. of Grk. autos. This promise is amplified in the closing exhortation of Moses to Israel:
"19 I call the heavens and the earth to witness about you today, that I have set before you life and death, the blessing and the curse. Therefore choose life so that you and your descendants may live, 20 by loving ADONAI your God, listening to His voice, and clinging to Him. For He is your life and the length of your days, that you may dwell on the land that ADONAI swore to your fathers—to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob—to give them." (Deut 30:19-20 TLV)
Paul does not quote Moses to dispute the Torah but to affirm it and buttress his own argument. Rashi, the Medieval Jewish commentator (1040-1105), said that the promise to live refers to the world to come; "for if you say it refers to this world, doesn’t everyone die sooner or later?" However, Yeshua exhorted the rich young ruler, "if you wish to enter into life, keep the commandments" (Matt 19:17). Yeshua taught that the abundant life, the best kind of life possible, begins in the present age. It doesn't wait until the age to come (Matt 10:39; John 6:35, 63; 10:10).
Can anyone honestly say that living by God's commandments will give them a lousy life? Has anyone come up with a better standard? The apostolic writings offer several examples of this Torah truth. Zechariah and his wife Elizabeth are described as "both righteous in the sight of God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and requirements of the Lord" (Luke 1:6). Joseph, Yeshua's foster-father, is called a "righteous man" (Matt 1:19). Yochanan the Immerser is described as a "righteous and holy man" (Mark 6:20). Simeon was "righteous and devout" (Luke 2:25).
Joseph of Arimathea, a Pharisee and member of the Sanhedrin, likewise is called a "good and righteous man" (Luke 23:50). Later, Cornelius, the Roman centurion, is called a "righteous and God-fearing man" before Peter brought the good news to him (Acts 10:22). If God's Law had been ended in Messiah Yeshua, then what standard was being applied to judge these godly people as righteous?
Stern likens the life of Torah to the life in the Spirit:
"The word for "live" or "attain life" is the same as that used at 8:12–13 to describe what will happen to the believer who "by the Spirit" keeps "putting to death the practices of the body." Conclusion: Sha’ul affirms that the Torah and the Ruach HaKodesh offer one and the same eternal life. This is consistent with and suggested by the fact that the Holy Spirit came to the first believers on Shavuot (Pentecost), the same day the Torah was given to Moses."
If we consider that the Torah may be summarized by the two great commandments, to love God (Deut 6:4-5) and to love neighbor (Lev 19:18; Matt 22:36-40), then there is no conflict between Moses and Paul. These commandments presume not only believing in the existence of God (Heb 11:6), but trusting in his covenant faithfulness. Trust is the foundation of Torah and keeping the two great commandments.
6― Moreover, the righteousness from faithfulness speaks thus: "Do not say in your heart, 'who will ascend into heaven?' that is, to bring down Messiah;
Reference: Deuteronomy 30:12.
Moreover: Grk. de, conj. used to indicate (1) a contrast to a preceding statement or thought, "but;" (2) a transition in presentation of subject matter, "now, then;" or (3) a connecting particle to continue a thought, "and, also," sometimes with emphasis, "indeed," "moreover" (Thayer). The third meaning applies here. Almost all English versions (except the CJB and YLT) translate the conjunction as "but," which implies a rebuttal to the previous verse. Rather, this verse amplifies the point of the previous verse.
the righteousness: Grk. ho dikaiosunē. See verse 3 above. from: Grk. ek, prep., lit. "out of." The term emphasizes a point of origin and denotes direction. A few versions translate the word as "based on" (AMP, ESV, GW, NASB, RSV, TLV), which describes a logical relationship, and the CJB conveys the same meaning with "grounded in." A few versions stress means with "by" or "through" (ERV, EXB, JUB, NET, NIV, TEV). Many versions affirm origin and direction with "of," "from" or "comes from" (CEB, CSB, ISV, KJV, MW, NAB, NIV, NKJV, NRSV, OJB).
faithfulness: Grk. pistis (from peithō, "to persuade, be persuaded"), incorporates two primary facets of meaning: (1) that which causes trust and faith, i.e., faithfulness or reliability, and (2) trust or confidence in an active sense (BAG). Zodhiates says that pistis also includes the obligation of loyalty or fidelity to God (1163). Thayer and the NASBEC also include "faithfulness" in the definition of pistis. Christian versions translate the noun as "faith," but the CJB and the TLV have "trust."
In the LXX pistis translates nouns derived from Heb. aman (SH-539), to confirm, make firm or support (BDB 52), including (1) Heb. emun (SH-529), faithfulness (Deut 32:20; Prov 13:17); (2) emunah (SH-530), fidelity, firmness, or steadfastness, which used of men's faithfulness (1Sam 26:23; 2Kgs 12:15; 22:7; Jer 5:1, 3; 7:28; 9:3; Hos 2:20), as well as God's faithfulness (Ps 33:4; Lam 3:23; Hab 2:4); (3) amanah (SH-548), 'fixed support,' Neh 9:38; 11:23; SS 4:8); and (4) emet (SH-571), firmness, faithfulness, truth, (Prov 14:22; Jer 28:9; 33:6). The LXX usage emphasizes that the Hebrew meaning of faithfulness is the intended usage of pistis.
Paul builds on this meaning and represents pistis as more than belief in God. Righteousness, a word of character and conduct, cannot result from belief in God alone. "The demons believe and shudder" (Jas 2:19). Righteousness is built on the foundation of faithfulness to God's expectations. Stern notes that the translation of "but the righteousness" found in Christian versions makes verses 6–8 contrast with verse 5 instead of continuing or modifying its thought, thusly: "The righteousness based on the Torah says one thing (verse 5), but, in contrast, the righteousness based on faith says something else (verses 6–8)."
Stern labels this interpretation, like the one that makes verse 4 speak of terminating the Law, as antisemitic, "even if today it is unintentionally so." The origin of this faulty interpretation can be traced to the theology of the church fathers (2nd through 6th centuries) and decisions of the church councils (4th through 8th centuries) who not only minimized the importance of the Torah given to Moses, but did their best to expunge any Jewishness from Christianity. So, verses 6–8 affirms that the righteousness found in the Messiah Yeshua is not qualitatively different from the righteousness defined by the Torah given to Moses.
Indeed, the righteousness of Yeshua is the same righteousness based on the same trust and leading to the same quality of life in the present age and the age to come of which Moses spoke. Even as Stern's correction of standard Christian interpretation is certainly valid, I would ask the reader to consider just whose faithfulness Paul is talking about. From the beginning of this letter Paul has made the case that righteousness begins with the faithfulness of God. It was God's choice to make promises to the patriarchs and Israel and Scripture affirms God's faithfulness to fulfill those promises.
speaks: Grk. legō, pres., to make a statement or utterance, whether oral or in written form; say, tell, declare. thus: Grk. houtōs, adv. used to introduce the manner or way in which something has been done or to be done; thus, in this manner, way or fashion, so. To make this point Paul then quotes from Deuteronomy 30:12. Do not: Grk. mē, a particle of qualified negation, subjective in nature, involving will and thought; not. say: Grk. legō, aor. subj. The subjunctive mood stresses prohibition.
in: Grk. en, prep. your: Grk. su, pronoun of the second person. The singular pronoun may allude to the fictive opponent whom Paul has been addressing in the letter. heart: Grk. kardia. See verse 1 above. Speaking in the heart is only a step from speaking out loud, and God is aware of both. Scripture provides no justification for the common belief among Christians that no one can keep God's law. Try telling a municipal judge that you just cannot keep the speed law. The reason people don't keep God's laws has nothing to do with ability, but willingness.
Moses asserted to Israel in his closing monologue, "For this commandment that I command you today is not too hard for you" (Deut 30:11 ESV). Moses warned his generation not to even contemplate rationalizations to justify unfaithfulness in obeying God's commandments. He goes on to mention two rationalizations an Israelite might offer in the form of questions.
Who: Grk. tís, m.s., interrogative pronoun indicating interest in establishing something definite; who, which, what, why. will ascend: Grk. anabainō, fut. mid., to go up to a point or place that is higher than the point of origin, sometimes in the context of going up steps. Idiomatically the verb means to enter or approach. In the LXX anabainō translates Heb. alah (SH-5927), to go up, to ascend, to climb, particularly of going up the mountain of God, the sanctuary and Jerusalem (DNTT 2:185). into: Grk. eis, prep. See verse 1 above.
heaven: Grk. ouranos, the area above the earth that encompasses the sky, interstellar space and associated phenomena or the transcendent dwelling-place of God. In the LXX ouranos translates the Heb. hashamayim (lit. "the heavens") (DNTT 2:191). The Hebrew and Greek words for "heaven" are used in Scripture to refer to at least three different places (Ps 148:1-4). From the ground level of the earth the first heaven is the atmosphere (Gen 1:20; Rev 19:17). The second heaven is interstellar space (Gen 1:1, 8; Matt 24:29). Finally, the third heaven is the location of the throne of God and the home of angels (1Kgs 8:30; Matt 6:9; 2Cor 12:2).
The obvious meaning in the Deuteronomy passage is that the ascent would be made to the throne of God. The phrasing of the question indicates that the meaning of God's instruction is not inaccessible because of its height or loftiness, so that some especially qualified person would be needed to make it all clear (Craigie 365). that: Grk. houtos, demonstrative pronoun signifying a person or thing set forth in narrative that precedes or follows it; this. is: Grk. eimi, pres., to be, a function word used primarily to declare a state of existence, whether in the past ('was, were'), present ('are, is') or future ('will be'), often to unite a subject and predicate (BAG).
Paul introduces the idea that the hypothetical question had a deeper meaning than Moses understood. to bring down: Grk. katagō, aor. inf., to lead or bring down someone from a point that is higher (BAG). Messiah: Grk. Christos. See verse 4 above. Paul interprets the focus of the first question in reference to the Messiah coming to earth. The full question is "Who will ascend to heaven for us and bring it to us, that we may hear it and do it?" (ESV). The books of Moses contain promises of the Messiah (Gen 3:15; 12:3; 28:14; 49:10; Num 24:17, 19; Deut 18:15, 18), but Paul asserts that Messiah has already come.
The point of the question is similar to the expectation of the Samaritan woman that when Messiah came he would explain all things concerning the Torah (John 4:25). By his own words Yeshua came to fulfill or give the fullest meaning to the Torah (Matt 5:17) and in the Sermon on the Mount he conveys the "original intent" of God's commandments.
7― or 'who will descend to the deep?' that is, to bring up Messiah from death."
Reference: Deuteronomy 30:13.
or: Grk. ē, a particle involving options, here to introduce an different question. who: Grk. tís, interrogative pronoun. will descend: Grk. katabainō (from kata, "down" and bainō, "walk, step"), fut. mid., to proceed in a direction that is down, come or go down. into: Grk. eis, prep. See verse 1 above. the deep: Grk. ho abussos, adj., bottomless or unfathomably deep (Rienecker). Danker associates the term with a transcendent region deep below the earth's surface, the deep abode of the dead; abyss, underworld. The Hebrew text, the LXX and the Samaritan Pentateuch actually read "Who will go over the sea for us and bring it to us, that we may hear it and do it?" (ESV), but Paul substitutes "who will descend to the deep."
In the LXX abussos generally translates Heb. tehom (SH-8415), deep, used for the original creation "the deep" (Gen 1:2), then the primeval reservoirs of water (Gen 7:11; 8:2), and later natural springs of the earth (Deut 8:7; 33:13; Prov 8:24; Isa 44:27), springs of the sea (Job 38:16), and the ocean depths (Job 38:30; Ps 33:7; 78:15; 107:26; 135:6; Isa 51:10; Ezek 26:19; Jon 2:5) (DNTT 2:205). The term is also used in some passages for trying circumstances or distresses (Ps 106:9; Isa 63:13), as well as the realm of the dead (Ps 71:20).
In Rabbinic Judaism the word tehom also stood for the interior of the earth, where bodies are found which cause uncleanness. In some apocryphal literature abussos stands for the prison of fallen spirits (Eth.Enoch 10;4-6; 18:11-13; Jub 5:6-8) (DNTT 2:205). Abussos occurs nine time in the Besekh. The first mention is in the story of the Gadarene demoniac in which the demons ask Yeshua not to send them to the abyss (Luke 8:31). The other seven mentions of abussos are in Revelation where it is the prison of demonic spirits and fallen angels (9:1, 2, 11; 11:7; 17:8; 20:1, 3).
The majority of versions translate abussos as "abyss," no doubt applying Danker's definition. Stern translates abussos as "Sheol," but Grk. Hades is used to translate Heb. Sheol in the LXX, not abussos. Like Sheol, Hades is the place of the human dead and in the apostolic writings more specifically the place of the unredeemed dead (Matt 11:23; 16:18; Luke 16:23). If Paul had meant Hades, he would have used the term. Rather, Paul uses abussos to translate "sea" (Heb. yam) and he is not inventing a meaning not found in the original text.
In the Deuteronomy passage the question ("who will cross the sea") pertains to a quest to the farthest reaches of the earth to find a wise man who could explain the meaning of God's words. Moses' own answer to these questions is "it is in your mouth and in your mind, so that you may do it." In other words, the Torah is not rocket science. God spoke so as to be understood. The problem is not in understanding God's expectations, but in the hard-heartedness that rejects God's authority.
that: Grk. houtos, demonstrative pronoun. is: Grk. eimi, pres., to be, a function word used primarily to declare a state of existence, whether in the past ('was, were'), present ('are, is') or future ('will be'), often to unite a subject and predicate (BAG). Paul uses the pronoun-verb to introduce the idea that the hypothetical question had a deeper meaning than Moses understood. to bring up: Grk. anagō, aor. inf., may mean (1) to conduct from a lower place to a higher, often to denote elevation, 'lead or bring up;' (2) bring up for a judicial process, a legal technical term, 'bring before;' or (3) as a nautical technical term, 'put to sea or set sail.' The first meaning applies here.
Messiah: Grk. Christos. See verse 4 above. from: Grk. ek, prep. death: Grk. nekros, may be used as (1) a noun, corpse or (2) adj., without life in the physical sense, being dead. Paul uses the word "death" as a parallelism of "abussos" as a reference the Messiah's death and resurrection. While Paul's translation and application of the Deuteronomy passage to the Messiah seems cavalier, free interpretation of Hebrew Scripture was common in the Aramaic Targums. For example, the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan [an Aramaic translation of the Tanakh] translates Deut 30:11-13 as follows,
"the law is not in heaven that it should be said, oh that we had one of us, as Moses the prophet, who could go up to heaven and bring it to us! nor is it beyond the great sea, that it should be said, oh that we had one of us, as Jonah the prophet, "who could descend into the depths of the great sea", and bring it to us.''
The experience of Jonah of going to the depths of the sea serves as a word picture of death (cf. Ps 68:22; 106:11; Lam 3:54; Ezek 28:8; Rev 20:13). Paul essentially treats "sea" as idiomatic of the state of death and so he uses abussos to convey that meaning. Bible commentators generally interpret Paul's translation as conveying a similar idea to his statement in his Ephesian letter that Yeshua descended into the "lower parts of the earth" (Eph 4:9). In other words, Yeshua descended into Hades after his death.
However, in Ephesians 4:9 Paul is endeavoring to show that the passage he had just quoted, Psalm 68:18, must be understood of the Messiah, not of God, because 'an ascent into heaven' necessarily presupposes a descent to earth (which was made by Messiah in the incarnation), whereas God does not leave his abode in heaven (Thayer). The declaration of the Apostles Creed that Yeshua "descended into hell" and remained there until his resurrection contradicts the Scripture which says that Yeshua was not "abandoned to Hades" (Ps 16:10; Acts 2:27, 31; 13:35).
Generally not considered is that just before he died Yeshua said, "Father in your hands I commit my spirit" (Luke 23:46). He did not say, "Hades, here I come." When Yeshua died on the cross his spirit went to Paradise that afternoon as he promised the thief (Luke 23:43, 46; cf. Ps 16:10-11). Paul's reading of the Messiah into the words of Moses does not alter the material meaning of the Torah passage. Stern comments:
"The purpose of both the Deuteronomy passage and this one is to show that self-effort is neither necessary nor possible: both Torah and Messiah were given by God's grace, without human assistance, so that Israel might "hear … and do."
The Provision for Salvation, 10:8-15
8― But which says? "The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart"--that is, the message of faithfulness which we are proclaiming
Reference: Deuteronomy 30:14.
But: Grk. alla, an adversative conjunction used adverbially suggesting other matter or varying viewpoint for consideration. The nuance of contrast may be expressed with "but, on the other hand, yet, nevertheless, indeed or certainly." The conjunction may suggest a confrontational tone to a fictive opponent. which: Grk. tís, interrogative pronoun. See verse 6 above. says: Grk. legō, pres. See verse 6 above. Most versions present the question as "but what does it say." Paul draws the reader's attention back to the Deuteronomy passage. Moses provides the answers to the hypothetical questions. Maybe we should listen to Moses. Paul then quotes from Deuteronomy 30:14.
The word: Grk. ho rhēma, a communication consisting of words. In secular Greek works rhēma referred to a statement, discourse or explanation. In the LXX rhēma occurs predominately in the Pentateuch and prophetic writings for the Heb. dabar, which means "word" or "thing." Thus, rhēma, standing for dabar, can mean both (a) a word or utterance as well as (b) a matter, event, or case in the sense of the result of things said or done. In the Tanakh rhēma is often synonymous with Grk. logos, which means a vocalized expressed of the mind, ranging broadly in extent of content and variety of form (DNTT 3:1119f).
Interestingly both rhēma and logos occur together in the LXX of Exodus 34:27, "Write down these words [rhēma], for in accordance with these words [logos] I have made a covenant with you and with Israel." is: Grk. eimi, pres. See verse 6 above. near: Grk. engus, prep., near or close to, whether in a spatial or temporal sense. you: Grk. su, pronoun of the second person. The Word, or Torah, came from God. in: Grk. en, prep. your: Grk. su, used in a possessive sense. mouth: Grk. stoma, the bodily organ used for speaking, tasting, eating and drinking; mouth.
and: Grk. kai, conj. in: Grk. en, prep. your: Grk. su. heart: Grk. kardia. See verse 1 above. This is an idiomatic expression indicating the receipt of God's command. The Hebrew text finishes the instruction with "that you may observe it," which the LXX translates as "and in your hands to do it." The rhēma of which Moses' speaks is the command he issues following the section Paul quotes:
"See, I have set before you today life and prosperity, and death and adversity; in that I command you today to love the LORD your God, to walk in His ways and to keep His commandments and His statutes and His judgments." (Deut 30:15-16 NASB)
the message: Grk. ho rhēma. of faithfulness: Grk. ho pistis, trusting faithfulness. See verse 6 above. Loving God, if it has any meaning in the real world, means being faithful to God in what He has decreed. which: Grk. hos, relative pronoun used to give significance to the mention of a person, thing, or piece of information that precedes; who, which, what, that. we are proclaiming: Grk. kērussō, pres., to make a public announcement in the manner of a herald, to proclaim. In the LXX kērussō occurs only 29 times and usually translates Heb. qara (SH-7121), to call, proclaim or read (first in Gen 41:43) (DNTT 3:51).
The Heb. verb qara is used for three classic functions of the herald: (1) for the proclamation of a Torah festival (Ex 32:5; 2Kgs 10:20) or a fast (Joel 1:14; Jon 3:5); (2) for the orders of a military commander in the field or a decree of the prince which have to be proclaimed (Ex 36:6; 2Chr 24:9,); and (3) for the proclamation of judgment (Hos 5:8; Joel 2:1; 3:9). The three occurrences of kērussō in Proverbs (1:12; 8:1; 9:3) belong in a special category since "Wisdom," a personification of God, is crying out for obedience of Torah ethics.
In the Besekh the verb kērussō appears frequently in relation to Paul's ministry or letters, and applies mostly about the reign of God and associated themes. Paul sees himself as the herald of the Messiah. Christian versions translate the verb as "preach," but Jews consider the English translation of "preach" as a distinctly Christian word. Paul again emphasizes that the message of Moses is the same message that he is trying to get across.
9― that if you profess with your mouth 'Yeshua is Lord,' and trust in your heart that God resurrected him from death, you will be saved;
that: Grk. hoti, conj. See verse 2 above. The conjunction introduces a sentence that explains the previous use of kērussō. if: Grk. ean, conj. that serves as a conditional particle and produces an aspect of tentativeness by introducing a possible circumstance that determines the realization of some other circumstance. you profess: Grk. omologeō, aor. subj., to express oneself openly and firmly about a matter. The verb has a range of meaning: (1) to promise or assure; (2) to agree with or admit something; (3) to confess in a judicial sense; (4) to declare or acknowledge publicly; or (5) to praise (BAG).
In this context, the verb stresses identification with Yeshua. The subjunctive mood has a hortatory function that anticipates a positive outcome. Many versions translate the verb as "confess," but Paul does not describe confession of sin or an affirmation of a creed, as Christianity uses the term confess. Some versions have "declare" (EXB, GW, ISV, NCV, NIRV, NIV, NJB, NLT, NOG). The CJB has "acknowledge publicly" and MW has "affirm."
with: Grk. en, prep. your: Grk. su, pronoun of the second person. mouth: Grk. stoma. See the previous verse. The profession is depicted as vocalized words in the hearing of witnesses. Yeshua: Grk. Iēsous, a transliteration of the Hebrew name Yeshua ("Jesus" in Christian Bibles). Yeshua is a contraction of the Hebrew name Y’hoshua ("Joshua"), which means "YHVH [the LORD] is salvation" (BDB 221). The meaning of his name is explained to Joseph by an angel of the Lord, "You shall call his name Yeshua, for he will save his people from their sins" (Matt 1:21). For more information on the meaning our Lord's name, his identity, and the history of translation of the name see my web article Who is Yeshua?
is Lord: Grk. kurios may mean either (1) one in control through possession, and therefore owner or master; or (2) one esteemed for authority or high status, thus lord or master. In the LXX kurios occurs over 9,000 times, the great majority to translate Heb. words for God, principally the name YHVH (DNTT 2:511). Kurios is the principal title used for Yeshua throughout the apostolic writings. Edwards attempts to make the case that kurios is here used to emphasize that Yeshua is God as it is used predominately in the LXX.
Similarly, Robertson says that "No Jew would do this who had not really trusted Christ, for kurios in the LXX is used of God. No Gentile would do it who had not ceased worshipping the emperor as kurios. The word kurios was and is the touchstone of faith." However, Paul probably uses kurios as equivalent to the Heb. adôn ("Lord" in the sense of "ruler"), rather than the sacred name. The frequent use of kurios to address Yeshua in the flesh likely did not consider deity. Expectant Jews would call Yeshua adôn because the Messiah would rule over Israel. Lordship implies all kinds of divine expectations that should be considered (Matt 7:21-23).
Moreover, such a declaration addressed to the congregation in Rome, the center of Caesar worship, would be especially significant. Caesar believed he was kurios of the world and the Caesar cult, with faithful devotees scattered throughout the empire, provided a serious obstacle to discipleship. Eventually, this simple profession that Yeshua is Lord would create many Christian martyrs. The principal issue here is that a person is expected to profess, not a creedal formula, but that Yeshua is his Lord, his master, and not just his Savior.
and: Grk. kai, conj. trust: Grk. pisteuō, aor. subj. See verse 4 above. Most versions translate the verb as "believe," but to believe is to trust completely and stand firm in that trust. Paul is not talking about an intellectual assent to a creed. in: Grk. en, prep. your: Grk. su. heart: Grk. kardia. See verse 1 above. As a Hebrew idiom "heart" stands for the whole person. This is a commitment that engages the passions. While it may seem strange that Paul speaks of trusting as following professing he is simply preserving the word order of "mouth" and "heart" as occurs in the Deuteronomy passage he just quoted. The two activities might occur somewhat coincidentally in response to an apostolic sermon.
that: Grk. hoti, conj. God: Grk. theos, the God of Israel. See verse 1 above. resurrected: Grk. egeirō, aor., to rise or raise, is used with a variety of meanings: (1) to arouse from sleep, to awake; (2) to arouse from the sleep of death, to recall the dead to life; (3) to cause to rise or raise, from a seat or bed; or (4) to raise up, produce, cause to appear, such as appear before the public or a judge, erect a building, or incite opposition. The second meaning is intended here. The verb appears frequently in the Besekh in reference to resurrection.
The verb egeirō appears in Yeshua's prophecies of being raised on the third day from his arrest (Matt 16:21; 17:23; 20:19; Luke 9:22; 24:6). The verb graphically depicts the prone corpse of Yeshua lying on a tomb shelf being reanimated and transformed by the return of his spirit so that he could rise to an erect position and leave the tomb. Thus, God "brought him back to life" (GW, NOG).
him: Grk. autos, personal pronoun; i.e., Yeshua. from: Grk. ek, prep. death: Grk. nekros. See verse 7 above. The term, of course, applies to Yeshua's body not his spirit. Although nekros lacks the definite article most versions translate the term as a noun "the dead," which may be misleading. When people die the spirit goes either to Heaven or Hades (Luke 16:22). Many Christians believe that Yeshua went to Hades after he died and was resurrected from there as declared in the Apostles' Creed. On this subject see my article Is the Apostles' Creed Apostolic? Scripture does not say anywhere that Yeshua descended into Hades, which is a place of torment and punishment and the abode of demons and fallen angels.
Paul means "death" as a condition or state. Several versions translate nekros here as "death" (CEV, ERV, GNB, ICB, NMB, WE). Yeshua understood that he would be resurrected (Matt 26:32) and the apostles echoed the accomplishment (Acts 2:24). Unlike previously resurrected people who had to die again, Yeshua was given victory over death so that he could never die again. Paul makes the point, which is uniformly and consistently declared in the Besekh, that God resurrected Yeshua from death. Yeshua did not resurrect himself. Being convinced of Yeshua's resurrection provides confidence that God will resurrect His people from death in order to enjoy eternal life.
you will be saved: Grk. sōzō, fut. pass. See verse 4 above. The verb is second person singular, so it stresses the individual. God’s judgment means eternal death and eternal fire. Being saved means full and complete deliverance from the wages of sin. With the future tense Paul could mean that in the instant one professes Yeshua and trusts in divine mercy, that future salvation is secured in the present (cf. Titus 3:5; 1Pet 3:21). Just as likely is that the future tense has an eschatological meaning, i.e., being rescued from God's wrath on the Day of Judgment.
Both Edwards and Harrison consider verses 9 and 10 to be the content of an early "Christian" confession, used in worship or at one's immersion. However, there is no evidence from the apostolic writings of a creedal recitation by a "convert" as occurred in Christianity beginning in the 2nd century. The salvation stories of people in Acts indicate great variety in terms of both apostolic instruction and individual responses. Paul does not mention repentance or immersion here and yet those were important elements as well in making a disciple (Acts 2:38).
Confessing of sin was normal to Jewish experience because the Torah required a declaration of accountability whenever a sin or guilt offering was presented (Lev 5:5). Indeed, sin was expiated not only by the animal sacrifice, but by verbal repentance and confession that accompanied it. Confessing did not mean that the sinner admitted to specific sins, but simply that he had sinned and stood in need of God's mercy. Confession acknowledged God's sovereignty and righteousness in the face of man's sin (Shulam).
Professing the Lordship and the resurrection of Yeshua, the foundation of Messianic faith, would have significant meaning for Jews. This profession is not just concerned with admitting to and turning away from sins, but identifying with Yeshua as the Messiah. The line had already been drawn in the sand. Yeshua warned that discipleship would cause a division in families and insisted that his disciples love him above all other relationships (Matt 10:37). Although Joseph of Arimathea had been a secret disciple (John 19:38), the time for concealing one's loyalty to Yeshua was long past.
Difficulties can arise in any family when a person accepts Yeshua, but failure to openly identify with him can only have a negative effect on spiritual growth. Paul makes it clear that salvation, whether present or eschatological, depends on a public profession or at least a profession that other people hear. If we profess Yeshua's Lordship and our trust in his atoning sacrifice and resurrection before men then he will acknowledge us before the Father (Matt 10:32). Conversely, "If we deny him, he also will deny us" (2Tim 2:12). Paul's message was uncompromising. If you want to be saved, you have to take a stand.
10― for in the heart is trusting into righteousness; moreover in the mouth is professing into salvation.
for: Grk. gar, conj. See verse 2 above. in the heart: Grk. kardia. See verse 1 above. The dative case of the noun stresses the sphere of activity. is trusting: Grk. pisteuō, pres. mid. See verse 4 above. into: Grk. eis, prep. The preposition stresses motion toward a result. righteousness: Grk. dikaiosunē. See verse 3 above. It's not immediately clear whether the present tense of "trusts" refers to a condition that predated the public profession or to a continuing activity since the profession. The latter meaning seems the most likely since the activity bears fruit into the future. Verses nine and ten together emphasize both the crisis and process of spiritual transformation.
moreover: Grk. de, conj. See verse 6 above. in the mouth: Grk. stoma. See verse 8 above. Again, the dative case of the noun stresses the sphere of activity. professes: Grk. omologeō, pres. mid. See the previous verse. into: Grk. eis, prep. salvation: Grk. sōtēria, preservation in danger, deliverance from impending death or eternal salvation. "Salvation" may be equivalent to righteousness, the clause functioning as a Hebraic parallelism, but more likely extends the result of believing and professing to the eschatological promise of deliverance from wrath.
11― For the Scripture says, "Everyone trusting upon him will not be put to shame."
Reference: Isaiah 28:16.
For: Grk. gar, conj. the Scripture: Grk. ho graphē, writing, and in the Jewish context meaning the sacred Hebrew Bible (24 books) referred to as the Tanakh, corresponding to the Protestant Old Testament (39 books) and its translation into Greek, the Septuagint. The term "Scripture," which occurs over 50 times in the Besekh, summarizes the body of literature containing God's inspired, infallible, inerrant words penned by over 25 writers, from Moses to Malachi.
says: Grk. legō, pres. See verse 1 above. This is the third time in Romans that Paul refers to the authoritative source for his message. Paul then quotes from the last clause of Isaiah 28:16, which says in the LXX, "Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a tested stone, a costly cornerstone for the foundation, firmly placed. He who believes in it will not be disturbed" (ABP). Everyone: Grk. pas, adj. See verse 4 above. trusting: Grk. ho pisteuō, pres. part. See verse 4 above. Paul repeats the LXX accurately, but the rest of the quotation is not found in the Hebrew text of Isaiah 28:16.
upon: Grk. epi, prep., with the root meaning of "upon," used primarily as a marker of position or location; and in composition may be translated 'at, by, near, on, upon, or over.' him: Grk. autos, personal pronoun; i.e., Yeshua. will not: Grk. ou, adv. be put to shame: Grk. kataischunō, fut. pass., put to shame, or expose to disgrace. Paul changes the verb tense found in the LXX (aorist passive subjunctive, "in no way should be disgraced") to future passive indicative, "will not be humiliated" (CJB). Paul changes the tense to give the certainty found in the Hebrew text of Isaiah 28:16. The verb kataischunō reflects the fact that Israelites lived in an honor-shame culture.
The circumstances of a person's social, marital, economic and educational status created a level of honor for that person. For that reason social pressure via law and custom was exerted to preempt any action or reaction that would bring shame to a person. Yeshua warned his Jewish disciples that identifying with him could result in family disaffection (Luke 12:53) and persecution in the synagogues (Matt 10:17). Nevertheless disciples could be confident that God's opinion is the only one that really matters. When they stand before Him they will hear, "well done, good and faithful servant" (Matt 25:21).
12― for there is not a difference between, both traditional Jew and Hellenistic Jew; for the same Lord of all is rich toward all the ones calling on him;
for: Grk. gar, conj. there is: Grk. eimi, pres. See verse 6 above. not: Grk. ou, adv., particle of strong negation. a difference between: Grk. diastolē (from diastellō, drawing apart, distinction), difference or distinction, used of distinguishing musical notes (1Cor 14:7) and used here of contrasting Jewish groups (cf. Rom 3:22). Paul insists that the two groups named here have a commonality to God. Both groups spring from the same father. Even though there are differences God views His people as a unity.
both: Grk. te, conj. used to denote both connection and addition, as well as connect an idea closely to another in a manner that is tighter than with kai; and, also, both. traditional Jew: Grk Ioudaios, Jew, Jewish, Jewess or Judean (BAG). The noun identifies biological descendants of Jacob, but in the Besekh Ioudaios especially has a sectarian meaning to distinguish "devout" (= Hebrew-speaking Torah/tradition-observant) Jews from non-observant Jews (Acts 2:5). Indeed the noun Ioudaismos, "Judaism," first appears in the Maccabean writings for a way of life devoted to observance of Torah laws (2Macc 2:21; 8:1; 14:38; 4Macc 4:26), and then used by Paul to describe his religion before his life-changing encounter with Yeshua (Gal 1:13-14) (DNTT 2:310).
Traditional Jews revered Moses (John 9:28-29; Acts 6:11), and recognized the authority of the written Torah (John 7:23; Acts 21:20) and the traditions of the Sages (Matt 15:2; 23:2-3; Mark 7:3; Acts 10:28; Gal 1:14; Col 2:8). They faithfully observed the Sabbath, kept God's prescribed festivals, circumcised their children and regarded the Temple in Jerusalem as the only place to worship the God of Israel with sacrifices (John 2:13; 4:20; 5:16; 19:31; Acts 2:5; 16:3; 21:21; 22:3; 24:14). Thus, the term Ioudaios is never used to identify Hellenistic Jews, Samaritan Jews or Qumran Jews. For a complete discussion on the historical background of the term and its particular uses in the Besekh see my article The Apostolic Community.
and: Grk. kai, conj. Hellenistic Jew: Grk. Hellēn, lit. "Hellene" or "Hellenist," and may mean (1) a person who spoke or wrote Hellenistic Greek; or (2) a person of Hellenistic culture as opposed to traditional Israelite culture (BAG). My translation of "Hellenistic Jew" is based on history and usage of the term in the Besekh. After Alexander the Great (356−323 BC) conquered the world he and his successors sought to assimilate people in all the nations in the Greek way of life. All who spoke the Greek language and adopted or accommodated Greek culture in varying degrees were counted as Hellenist (DNTT 2:124).
All the lexicons recognize that Hellēn is a cultural term and not restricted to persons born to ethnic Greek families or Gentiles in general. Yet, the lexicons inexplicably exclude Jews from this definition and assume that Ioudaios is the only Greek word that can refer to Jews. This omission reflects a major blind spot in Christian scholarship. Almost all Bible versions, including Messianic versions, translate the noun here as "Greek" (a few have "Gentile"). Hellēn literally means "Hellenist," and a Hellenist might be a Gentile or he might be a descendant of Jacob.
Of interest is that the first mention of Hellēn in the Besekh is in John 7:35 where it refers to Greek-speaking Jews in the Diaspora. Why is that definition not applied here? The church father Justin Martyr (110-165) in his Dialogue with Trypho (Chap. LXXX) lists seven Jewish groups, among whom he identifies Hellenists. There were thousands of Hellenistic Jews in the Diaspora. Hellenistic Jews had a tendency toward universalism and they tolerated religions around them. In some places Hellenistic Jews accepted mixed marriage, dropped circumcision, and adopted Greek cults (Tarn & Griffith 223-227; Skarsaune 34).
Hellenistic Jews could be completely secular, ascetic like the Essenes, or devout worshippers as the Greek-speaking Jews that Luke describes in Acts 6:1. For a detailed discussion of the term Hellēn and the arguments for the usage of Hellēn in the Besekh representing "Hellenistic Jews" see my article Hellenism and the Jews.
for: Grk. gar, conj. the same: Grk. autos, personal pronoun. Lord: Grk. kurios. See verse 9 above. of all: pl. of Grk. pas, adj. See verse 4 above. The phrase "Lord of all" may be a shortened version of the affirmation that ADONAI is "Lord of all the earth" (Josh 3:11, 13; Mic 4:13; Zech 6:5; cf. Acts 10:36). is rich: Grk. plouteō, pres. part., possess in abundance, to be rich or wealthy or have many resources. The verb may reflect Paul's later affirmation that God is "rich in mercy" (Eph 2:4). toward: Grk. eis, prep. all: pl. of Grk. pas. The adjective refers first to the covenant community, but the generosity of God is extended to the entire earth.
the ones calling on: Grk. epikaleō, pres. mid. part. with the definite article, may mean (1) give a name or nickname to, call, name; or (2) call upon for help, aid or intercession, invoke, appeal, call on. The second meaning applies here. In the LXX epikaleō translates the Heb. qara, to call, to proclaim or to read, first in Genesis 4:26 (DNTT 1:272). The Hebrew word occurs frequently in contexts of someone crying out for help, especially in appeals to God and often with a loud voice. him: Grk. autos. The pronoun refers to ADONAI as the next verse makes clear.
13― for "whoever would call on the name of ADONAI will be saved."
Reference: Joel 2:32.
for: Grk. gar, conj. Paul now quotes from Joel 2:32. whoever: Grk. hos, relative pronoun. would: Grk. an, disjunctive particle that nuances a verb with contingency or generalization; would, ever, might. call on: Grk. epikaleō, aor. mid. subj. See the previous verse. the name: Grk. onoma is used in its central sense of identifying someone. In Hebrew literature it also carries the extended sense of qualities, powers, attributes or reputation. of ADONAI: Grk. kurios (for Heb. YHVH). See verse 9 above. The use of kurios for YHVH is curious J, since kurios is a title and YHVH is the personal name of the God of Israel (Ex 3:15; 2Chr 14:11; Isa 42:8). For more information on the history and usage of YHVH see my article The Blessed Name.
The statement of Joel relies on the concept that there is power in God's name. "Calling on the name of ADONAI" is an idiomatic expression that first occurs in Genesis 4:26, "Then men began to call upon the name of ADONAI." In that context and others the expression refers not simply to offering a prayer to God, but summarizes the nature and scope of worship at the altars built by the patriarchs (Gen 12:8; 13:4; 21:33; 26:25). The worship theme continues in a few other passages (Ex 34:5; Ps 116:17; Zeph 3:9). The usage in Joel, which Paul quotes, is to call on God for deliverance from danger or judgment (cf. Ps 116:4, 13).
Two special cases are worthy of note: (1) Elijah issued a challenge to the priests of Baal, "Then you will call on the name of your god, and then, I will call on the Name of ADONAI. The God who answers with fire, He is God" (1Kgs 18:24 TLV). (2) The second case is the healing story of Naaman whose expectation of medical attention including calling on "the name of ADONAI" (2Kgs 5:11). To "call on the name of ADONAI" is to admit one's weakness and powerlessness and one's utter need for God to intervene with mercy and deliverance.
While Christian interpreters often use Romans 10:13 as a proof-text for the doctrine of free moral agency, Paul is not arguing this issue. "Calling on the name of ADONAI" is probably an allusion to the high priest's confession on the Day of Atonement. The Talmud records that in the course of the temple services the high priest pronounced the Sacred Name ten times and apparently spoke so loud that he was heard "even unto Jericho" (Yoma 39b). Yoma gives this further description:
"He [the High Priest] then came to the scapegoat and laid his two hands upon it and he made confession. And thus would he say: I beseech thee, O LORD, thy people the house of Israel have failed, committed iniquity and transgressed before thee. I beseech thee, O LORD, atone the failures, the iniquities and the transgressions which thy people, the house of Israel, have failed, committed and transgressed before thee, as it is written in the Torah of Moses, thy servant, to say: For on this day shall atonement be made for you, to cleanse you, from all your sins shall ye be clean before the LORD. And when the priests and the people standing in the temple court heard the fully-pronounced Name come forth from the mouth of the high priest, they bent their knees, bowed down, fell on their faces and called out: Blessed be the Name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever." (Yoma 66a)
It is very possible that Paul intends a play on words and the "Name" of the Lord refers to Yeshua, since that is the name to be professed in verse 9 and Yeshua identified himself with YHVH in John 8:58. The true significance of calling on the name of the Lord is that it is in his name that we may receive spiritual life, God in us.
will be saved: Grk. sōzō, fut. pass. See verse 4 above. Paul could intend the verb as pertaining to (1) the present, in that the consequence immediately follows the "calling on the Lord"; (2) the eschatological judgment when Yeshua returns; or (3) the final judgment of the living and dead. Given Paul's capacity for lateral thinking he could intend all three senses.
Paul returns to the literary device of introducing rhetorical questions posed by a fictive objector, three questions in this verse, one in the next verse, one in verse 18 and one in verse 19. The challenge of interpreting this section is identifying the objector. Is the objector an Israelite or a Gentile? The textual difficulty arises from the fact in verses 14-15 Paul uses third person verbs in a vague manner and in verses 18-19 uses first person verbs. So, in this verse, who is "they?" Who is the fictive objector?
Stern interprets "they" as the unbelieving Jews and the objector as a non-Messianic Jew who essentially complains about Paul's use of the Joel quote and claims that if God had sent someone announcing good news about good things the Jews would have welcomed him. So it's God's fault that Jewish leaders rejected the message of Yeshua. Similarly, Shulam contends that in verse 14 Paul returns to the objection that "they," i.e., Israel, cannot be saved (although they may call on the Lord's name) because in the main they have stumbled over the Messiah.
The fictive objector could be a Gentile and these rhetorical questions assume that Israel's rejection means the nation can't or won't be saved. This distortion of Paul's teaching would form the basis for the rejection-replacement theology advocated by Christianity in later centuries. The false assumption fails to recognize that it was not the people of Israel who rejected Yeshua, but the Judean leadership who put Yeshua on trial and condemned him (cf. 1Th 2:14-16). In point of fact tens of thousands of Jews had embraced Yeshua as their Savior and Messiah (Acts 21:20).
How: Grk. pōs, adv. introducing a query concerning manner, way, or reason in respect to a matter; how? in what manner/way? then: Grk. oun, conj. used to denote that what it introduces is the result of or an inference from what precedes, "so, therefore, consequently, accordingly, then." might they call: Grk. epikaleō, aor. mid. subj., 3p-pl., lit. "call on." See verse 12 above. The subjunctive mood, which emphasizes potentiality, is used for the hypothetical proposition. The verb depicts an earnest petition. unto: Grk. eis, prep. See verse 1 above.
Him whom: Grk. hos, relative pronoun. See verse 8 above. The pronoun refers back to ADONAI in the Joel quotation. they have not: Grk. ou, adv. trusted: Grk. pisteuō, aor., 3p-pl. See verse 4 above. Most versions translate the verb as "believed," which is more representative of Christian theology than the biblical use of the term. A few versions have "trusted" (CJB, MSG, NLV, TLV). And: Grk. de, conj. how: Grk. pōs. might they trust: Grk. pisteuō, aor. subj., 3p-pl. whom: Grk. hos.
they have not: Grk. ou. heard: Grk. akouō, aor., 3p-pl., to hear, with the focus on receipt of information aurally. In the LXX akouō consistently stands for Heb. shama, which not only means to apprehend, but also to accept and to act upon what has been apprehended (DNTT 2:173). In Hebraic thought to hear is to obey. Barnes notes that the implied objection was, that people could not be expected to believe in one of whose existence they knew nothing, and, of course, that they could not be blamed for not doing it.
And: Grk. de. how: Grk. pōs. might they hear: Grk. akouō, aor. subj., 3p-pl. without: Grk. chōris, prep., in a condition or circumstance not including; without, apart from. proclaiming: Grk. kērussō, pres. part. See verse 8 above. The verb emphasizes the ministry of a herald for God, telling the good news of the Messiah. The third question also speaks to a condition of reality. The objection then is, that it is not right to condemn people for not believing what has never been proclaimed to them; and, of course, that the provision of salvation being dependent on trust in Messiah cannot be just and right.
15― And how will they proclaim unless they are sent? Just as it is written, "How timely the feet of the ones announcing good news of good things!"
Reference: Isaiah 52:7.
Paul poses his fourth question from the fictive opponent. And: Grk. de, conj. how: Grk. pōs, adv. will they proclaim: Grk. kērussō, aor. subj., 3p-pl. See verse 8 above. unless: Grk. ei mē, lit. "if not." they are sent: Grk. apostellō, aor. pass. subj., 3p-pl., to cause to move from one position to another, but often to send as an authoritative personal representative. Originally in Greek culture apostellō was used of sending an envoy to represent a king or a personal representative with legal powers. In the LXX apostellō translates Heb. shalach (SH-7971), "to stretch out or to send," often in contexts of commissioning and empowering a messenger (e.g., Gen 13:19; 24:7) (DNTT 1:128).
Just as: Grk. kathōs, conj. emphasizing similarity, conformity, proportion or manner; as, just as. it is written: Grk. graphō, perf. pass. See verse 5 above. The perfect tense denote action completed in past time with continuing results to the present. The phrase "it is written" is the standard formula in the apostolic writings for attesting an assertion of truth and divine inspiration of Scripture, followed by a quote from the Tanakh. This is the eighth time the formula is used in this letter. Paul then quotes from Isaiah 52:7.
How: Grk. hōs, adv. timely: Grk. hōraios (from hōra, hour, time of fulfillment or season of time), was used in classical Greek literature for 'the bloom and vigor of life,' or beauty (Thayer). The broad range of the idea of timeliness, especially association with prime periods, such as fruit at its peak and humans in youthful blossoming, readily invites the idea of a valued object as beautiful (Danker). The term is used figuratively to mean beautiful in timing, hence fruitful because of being fully developed and thus prepared (HELPS).
In the LXX of hōraios translates a dozen different Hebrew words, almost all of which refer to a physical description, such as fair, beautiful, comely or seemly. However, the LXX of Isaiah 52:7 does not have hōraios, but uses hōra to translate Heb. na'ah, to be comely or befitting. Almost all versions translate the noun as "beautiful," but "timely" seems more appropriate to the context.
the feet: pl. of Grk. pous, the body part that is used for walking or running; the foot. The mention of "feet" is a reminder that in the apostolic era the messengers of Yeshua traveled primarily by foot, and walked many miles to reach their destinations where the good news would be proclaimed. Important to the context is that neither Isaiah nor Paul are saying that messengers of God/Yeshua have pretty feet. See the Textual Note below.
of the ones: pl. of Grk. ho, definite article but used here as a demonstrative pronoun. announcing good news: Grk. euangelizō, pres. part., to bring or announce good news. The verb is used to mean (1) pass on information that spells good tidings to the recipient, and (2) spread good tidings of God's beneficial concern. In the LXX euangelizō translates Heb. basar (SH-1319), to publish or bear tidings, whether good or bad (DNTT 2:108-109). Initially basar referred to news of armed conflict delivered by a messenger (1Sam 31:9; 2Sam 1:20; 4:10; 18:19-20).
The concept of the messenger fresh from the field of battle is at the heart of the more theological usages in Isaiah and the Psalms. Here it is ADONAI who is victorious over His enemies and He comes to deliver the captives (Ps 68:11; Isa 61:1). The watchman waits eagerly for the messenger (Isa 52:7) who will bring this good news.
of good things: pl. of Grk. agathos, adj., achieving a high standard of excellence in meeting a need or interest, beneficial, useful, helpful or good. This question is reinforced when the full quotation of Isaiah 52:7 is considered:
"How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of him who brings good news, who announces shalom, who brings good news of happiness, who announces salvation, who says to Zion, 'Your God reigns!'" (TLV)
The focus of Isaiah 52:7 is on good news for Israel and the fictive opponent shows off his knowledge of Scripture. This not unlike the devil quoting Scripture to Yeshua in the wilderness to tempt him to sin (Matt 4:5-6). The point of the objection is that people could not believe unless the message was sent to them; and the opponent claims that God had not actually sent it to His people (Barnes).
Stern comments that "a similar objection is heard today when it is claimed that the Tanakh does not contain Messianic prophecies fulfilled by Yeshua (or at best is unclear about them), so that Jews cannot be blamed for not receiving him as the Messiah. So, the blame is laid on God—He didn't send us anyone, His message isn't clear; it's His fault, not ours."
Some versions insert "of those who preach the gospel of peace" after the mention of feet (BRG, DARBY, DRA, JUB, KJV, MEV, NKJV, NMB, RGT, WEB, YLT). The insertion of the clause in late manuscripts and the Textus Receptus was likely intended to make the quotation correspond more fully to the Septuagint (Metzger).
The Persistence of God, 10:16–21
16― But, not all obeyed the good news; for Isaiah says, "ADONAI, who has trusted our report?"
Reference: Isaiah 53:1.
But: Grk. alla, conj. See verse 8 above. not: Grk. ou, adv. all: pl. of Grk. pas, adj. The statement includes an important distinction, because "not all" means that "some" responded in a positive manner. obeyed: Grk. hupakouō, aor., 3p-pl., to be in compliance with, to obey. The third person plural points to Israel as the focus of the declaration. the good news: Grk. euangelion originally meant a reward for good news and then simply good news. The term is formed from Grk. eu, "good," and angelia, "message, announcement." Christian Bibles translate the term as "gospel," but given the origin of "gospel" in Old English ("god-spell"), many Jews regard the word as a distinctively Christian word.
In the LXX euangelion renders besorah, which may mean either a reward for good news (2Sam 4:10) or glad tidings (2Sam 18:20, 22). Most Christians think of the "gospel" only as 'Yeshua died on the cross to save me from my sins,' a message that does not fully reflect the original Jewish context. The good news proclaimed by the Jewish apostles was that God had fulfilled His promises given to Israel through the prophets and sent His Messiah in Jewish flesh to provide deliverance and atonement and to establish his kingdom on the earth (Matt 1:1, 20-23; Mark 1:1; Luke 1:30-37, 68-75; 24:44; John 1:29; 20:31; Rom 1:1-4, 16). The good news concerns directly the fulfillment of Messianic prophecy.
for: Grk. gar, conj. Isaiah: Grk. Ēsaias, a Graecized form of Heb. Yesha'yahu ("YHVH is Salvation" or "YHVH has saved"). Isaiah was the son of Amoz of the tribe of Judah and perhaps related to the royal house. The prophet lived during the reigns of the Judean kings Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, and probably the first years of Manasseh. He was contemporary with the last five kings of Israel: Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah, and Hosea. Isaiah received his call to ministry in a dramatic fashion c. 740 BC (Isa 6:1), and prophesied for forty years during which he was an adviser (court prophet) to Ahaz and Hezekiah.
Isaiah was contemporary with the prophets Micah and Hosea. He married a prophetess and had two sons (Isa 7:3; 8:3). Jewish tradition says that Isaiah was put to death by King Manasseh by being sawn in half (Yebamoth 49b; Ascension of Isaiah 1:9; 5:2; cf. Heb 11:37). He left a monumental literary work of 66 chapters, the longest of the prophetic books, containing almost half of the Messianic prophecies in the Tanakh. Isaiah wrote mostly warnings in the first half of his book and mostly comfort and promise in the second half.
Various scholars have proposed that some unknown author wrote the second half of the book of Isaiah (40─66) and a few scholars have actually suggested a Third Isaiah (56─66). Against this viewpoint are these arguments: (1) for 25 centuries no one doubted that Isaiah was the author of all 66 chapters; (2) there is no evidence that the two (or three) parts of the book ever existed separately; (3) The same style, vocabulary, and figures of speech occur in both sections; (4) all the quotations in the Besekh from parts of Isaiah labeled as "Second” and "Third” Isaiah" attribute those passages to Isaiah the prophet' and (5) the Dead Sea Scrolls include the entire text of Isaiah with no break between chapters 39 and 40.
We are supposed to believe that a book with its many and detailed prophecies of the Messiah was written by someone completely anonymous and unremembered in Judaism. Modern scholars go to incredible lengths to avoid believing in the truth of biblical material, just because they can't accept that God revealed the name of Cyrus (Isa 44:28; 45:1) almost two hundred years before he was born or that Isaiah was given words of exhortation and comfort for a people he knew would go into exile (Isa 39:6). If they can't believe the prophecy about Cyrus, how can they believe the prophecies that named the Messiah (Isa 7:14; 9:6; 46:13; 51:5; 59:16)?
says: Grk. legō, pres. See verse 6 above. The quote following comes from Isaiah 53:1. ADONAI: Grk. kurios, voc. case. See verse 9 above. The Hebrew text does not begin the verse with the Sacred Name, but it is found in the LXX to reinforce the person to whom the question is directed. who: Grk. tís, interrogative pronoun. has trusted: Grk. pisteuō, aor. See verse 4 above. The Hebrew text has aman (SH-539), confirm, support, be faithful, trust, so the verb stresses reliance rather than simple acceptance as the common translation of "believed" can mean.
our: Grk. hēmeis, pl. pronoun of the first person. report: Grk. akoē may refer to (1) the faculty of hearing and the organ of the ear; or (2) that which is heard; fame, report, message or proclamation. The second meaning applies here. In the LXX akoē translates Heb. shemuah (SH-8052), a report or tidings (BDB 1035). The prophet essentially complains that Israel has refused to heed the divine message. God then proceeds to describe the Servant of ADONAI who will bear the iniquity of Israel. Isaiah 53, of course, is the most significant Messianic prophecy in the Tanakh.
Paul's statement in this verse responds to the objection of the fictive opponent in the previous verse. God did indeed send His message of future hope in the Messiah to Israel, but it had not been received, just as God had forewarned Isaiah (Isa 6:9). Quoting from the first verse of Isaiah 53 Paul would intend the full context of the chapter to be considered as was customary in Jewish teaching on Scripture.
"Not all" does not impugn the whole nation, because many thousands of Jews did accept Yeshua as Messiah. Paul admonishes the objector to pay attention to the context of Isaiah's prophecy. The failure of non-Messianic Jews was not the lack of having heard the message as far back as Isaiah, but of trusting in the integrity of their God to fulfill His word.
17― So trust comes from hearing, and hearing through the word of Messiah.
So: Grk. ara, conj., a marker of inference based on preceding matter; then, so. trust: Grk. pistis. See verse 6 above. comes from: Grk. ek, prep. hearing: Grk. akoē. See the previous verse. The term is used of both actual listening and what is heard. and: Grk. de, conj. hearing: Grk. akoē. through: Grk. dia, prep. the word: Grk. rhēma. See verse 8 above. of Messiah: Grk. Christos. See verse 4 above. Paul summarizes his argument from verses 5-15 based on the quotations taken from the Torah, Isaiah and Joel (Shulam). Before the heart can believe and trust (verses 9-10), the ears must hear. The Hebrew idiom has a double meaning. On the one hand hearing does have the literal meaning of listening to a message, but hearing also implies obeying that message.
Trusting God for salvation is sparked by hearing. The message about the Messiah's life, death and resurrection (via the Spirit) is like a match set to kindling. The message about the Messiah's faithfulness to the Father's plan motivates an obedient response to the good news. The direct connection between the word coming from heaven through the human medium to stimulate trust makes proclaiming the good news of the Messiah imperative.
Some versions have "word of God" instead of "word of Messiah" (BRG, DARBY, DRA, JUB, KJV, MEV, NKJV, NMB, RGT, WEB, YLT). This phrase found in the Textus Receptus has a number of manuscripts in support, but the phrase "word of Messiah" is strongly supported by early and diverse witnesses, including P46 from the 2nd century. The expression "word of Messiah" occurs only here in the apostolic writings, whereas "word of God" is a more familiar expression (Luke 3:2; John 3:34; Eph 6:17; Heb 6:5; 11:3) (Metzger).
Reference: Psalm 19:4.
But: Grk. alla, conj. I quote: Grk. legō, pres., lit. "I ask." See verse 6 above. The first person verb is used to introduce a direct quote of the objection presented in verse 14 above. "I speak what you spoke." is it not: Grk. mē, adv. See verse 6 above. The word is used here as an interrogative particle when a negative answer is expected (Thayer). that they did not: Grk. ou, adv. See verse 2 above. hear: Grk. akouō, aor., 3p-pl. See verse 14 above. The question essentially means, "The message may have been sent, but the Jews have never heard this good news you're talking about." Ignorance might be inferred from Peter's Pentecost sermon when he proclaimed,
"Therefore let the whole house of Israel know for certain that God has made Him—this Yeshua whom you had crucified—both Lord and Messiah!" (Acts 2:36 TLV).
On the contrary: Grk. menounge (from mén, "indeed"; oún, "therefore"; and gé, "really"), particle used in response with emphatic feeling to correct what was previously said; nay surely, nay rather, indeed on the contrary. Paul treats this objection with a blunt rebuttal and then repeats King David's words from Psalm 19:4, quoting the LXX exactly (LXX Ps 18:5). See my commentary on Psalm 19. The quoted text presents a synonymous parallelism.
Their: pl. of Grk. autos, personal pronoun. voice: Grk. phthongos, expression constituting a sound, here as an expression of the human vocal system; voice. The Hebrew word in the quoted verse is qav (SH-6957), which means "line," or "measuring-line. The word qav occurs in passages concerning the marking off a possession in the Land. There are also various figurative uses, but in the Psalm the plural possessive form qolam means "their sound" (BDB 876). The Targum of the Psalm has, "The line of their conversation" (Cook).
has gone out: Grk. exerchomai, aor., to move away from a place or position, to go or come out. into: Grk. eis, prep., focusing on motion. all: Grk. pas, adj. See verse 4 above. the earth: Grk. ho gē can mean soil (as in receiving seed), the ground, land as contrasted with the sea, and the earth in contrast to heaven. The LXX uses gē more than 2,000 times and translates the Heb. word erets (SH-776), earth, land, first in Genesis 1:1. In the Tanakh erets generally designates either (a) the earth in a cosmological sense, or (b) "the land" in the sense of a specific territorial area, primarily the Land of Israel (BDB 75). The first usage is intended here.
and: Grk. kai, conj. their: pl. of Grk. autos. words: pl. of Grk. rhēma. See verse 8 above. The Hebrew text has the plural of millah (SH-4405), a word, speech, utterance (BDB 576). into: Grk. eis, prep. the ends: pl. of Grk. peras, extreme point, here in a spatial sense; end. of the inhabited world: Grk. oikoumenē (from oikeō, to inhabit or dwell), the world as an inhabited area, often with focus on its inhabitants. In the earliest classical Greek literature the term was used of the world inhabited by Greeks in contrast to those lands inhabited by barbarians, but later literature included the lands of barbarians.
In the Roman period the term meant the lands under Roman rule, because whatever lay outside was of no account. In the LXX oikoumenē occurs 40 times, mostly in Psalms and Isaiah, and translates primarily Heb. tebel (SH-8398), 'world,', as an inhabited place (DNTT 1:518). In accordance with Jewish practice the citation of a verse implies the entire context.
The references "their voice" and "their words" conclude the assertion of the first three verses in which David employed the literary device of personification, that is, attributing human characteristics to material things.
"1 The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament shows His handiwork. 2 Day unto day utters speech, and night unto night reveals knowledge. 3 There is no speech and no language where their voice is not heard." (Ps 19:1-3 BHIB)
David's affirmation is referred to as general revelation in biblical theology, of which Paul wrote in 1:18-20. In other words the natural world contains considerable evidence of the existence and attributes of God. David was not saying that he heard voices coming from outer space. However, all created things produce sound as designed by the Creator who by the sound of His voice spoke all things into existence (Gen 1:3; Ps 33:9; 148:5). Modern technology has recorded a cacophony of sounds coming from interstellar space. (See ESA Space Science for audio clips of sound waves from Saturn and the Sun.)
All the "inarticulate" sounds in interstellar space as well as the sounds on earth shout the glory of God. As John the apostle recorded his experience in heaven:
"And every created thing which is in heaven and on the earth and under the earth and on the sea, and all things in them, I heard saying, 'To Him who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb, be blessing and honor and glory and dominion forever and ever.'" (Rev 15:3 NASB)
Paul insists there is no excuse for unbelief. Yeshua asserted that if his disciples kept quiet "the stones will cry out" (Luke 19:40). As a result of the faithfulness of Yeshua's apostles the good news was spread to the ends of the known world. The prophetic message anticipating the Messiah went to all Jews and the apostles went to every synagogue where Jews could be found and proclaimed the message of the Messiah having come in the person of Yeshua.
Paul could also be alluding to a belief that the planets and constellations portended the coming of a Jewish king. In order to understand the import of the quote from Psalm 19 we must consider the first usage of "stars" in Scripture:
"Then God said, ‘Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years; and let them be for lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth;’ and it was so." (Gen 1:14-18)
The sun and moon determined the climatic "seasons" (Heb. mo‘adim), the basis for the annual calendar and sacred festivals, especially in Leviticus 23 (BDB 417). Yet, the heavenly lights were created to function as "signs" (Heb. oth), and not just as aids to navigation, but portents with religious significance. The belief in the twelve constellations, or groupings of stars having special religious significance, is very old as alluded to in Job 9:9, "Who makes the Bear, Orion and the Pleiades, and the chambers of the south?" (Cf. Job 38:32; 2Kgs 23:5; Isa 13:10.)
According to the Talmud the twelve constellations were created for the benefit of Zion (Berachot 32b). The standards of the tribes identified in Numbers 2 corresponded to the Hebrew (zodiacal) symbols of the constellations ("Zodiac," Jewish Encyclopedia). If the stars were meant as signs and a benefit to Zion, i.e., Israel, what was that benefit? Paul gives the answer. The panorama of interstellar planets and constellations visible in the night sky announced the full scope of God's plan of redemption and specifically the advent of the Messiah (cf. Matt 2:2; 24:29; Luke 21:25f; 2Pet 1:19).
When the Magi came to Jerusalem seeking the King, they said, "we saw his star in the east" (Matt 2:2). Herod and his advisors were not shocked by this report, which points to its validity. They surely knew the prophecy of Balaam: "A star shall come out of Jacob" (Num 24:17 ESV), and probably also that of Isaiah, "And nations shall come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your rising" (Isa 60:3 ESV). In modern times Evangelical Christians have theorized what the details of the heavenly proclamation might be, the so-called "Gospel in the Stars."
God's story of the Virgin, the promised Seed, the substitutionary sacrifice, and the destruction of the Serpent are all displayed in the stars. Here is a summary of the message of each constellation:
• Virgo, the Virgin: promised Seed of the woman
• Libra, the Balance: scales of divine justice
• Scorpio, the Scorpion: sting to be inflicted on the divine seed
• Sagittarius, the Archer: corruption of the human race
• Capricorn, the Goat-Fish: utter wickedness of mankind
• Aquarius, the Water Pourer: destruction of the primeval world by water
• Pisces, the Fishes: emergency of the true people of God
• Aires, the Ram: sacrifice of an innocent substitute for sins
• Taurus, the Bull: resurrection of the slain Ram as the mighty Bull
• Gemini, the Twins: the dual nature of the reigning king
• Cancer, the Crab: ingathering of the redeemed from all ages
• Leo, the Lion: destruction of the serpent by the great
Dr. Henry M. Morris provides a more complete explanation of the "Gospel in the Stars" in his book Many Infallible Proofs (1974), Appendix B. The most widely quoted author on the "Gospel in the Stars" is Joseph Seiss who published his work in 1884. Click here for an online Summary.
Stern infers a kal v'chomer argument from Paul's reasoning. That is, if everyone in the world has had the general revelation of the good news proclaimed by the heavens, so that anyone can respond by trusting in God; how much more should the descendants of Jacob, who have had the written Torah (Rom 3:2, 9:4), which Psalm 19 calls "perfect, restoring the soul" (verse 8), have paid attention and trusted!
19― But I quote, "is it not that Israel did not understand?" First Moses says, "I will provoke zealousness in you on those not a people, on a nation without understanding I will provoke anger in you."
Reference: Deuteronomy 32:21.
But: Grk. alla, conj. See verse 8 above. I quote: Grk. legō, pres. See the previous verse. is it not: Grk. mē, interrogative particle. See the previous verse. that Israel: Grk. Israēl, a transliteration of the Heb. Yisrael, which means "God prevails" (BDB 975). The noun occurs 68 times in the Besekh, sometimes referring to the patriarch Jacob (Matt 10:6), sometimes as the covenant name of the chosen people (Matt 2:6), sometimes in reference to the land in which the chosen people dwelled (Matt 2:21), and sometimes as a corporate reference to the biological descendants of Jacob through the twelve tribes (Matt 19:28).
The name first appears in Genesis 32:28 where the heavenly being with whom Jacob struggled said,
"From now on, you will no longer be called Ya'akov, but Isra'el; because you have shown your strength to both God and men and have prevailed" (CJB).
The announcement, occurring before Jacob's reconciliation with his brother Esau, was prophetic, because not until Chapter 35 do we read that the name change was made permanent. Then God spoke to Jacob,
"Your name is Ya'akov, but you will be called Ya'akov no longer; your name will be Isra'el." Thus he named him Isra'el." God further said to him, "I am El Shaddai. Be fruitful and multiply. A nation, indeed a group of nations, will come from you; kings will be descended from you. Moreover, the land which I gave to Avraham and Yitz'chak I will give to you, and I will give the land to your descendants after you." (Gen 35:9-12 CJB)
Paul's use of "Israel" is in relation to the biological descendants of Jacob. Throughout the rest of the Tanakh, Jacob’s descendants are called the "sons of Israel" (Ex 12:37) or "house of Israel" (Ex 16:31). Thus, the twelve tribes with whom God established an everlasting covenant at Mt. Sinai are the people of God. Paul is obviously not using "Israel" as symbolic of Christianity or the Christian Church, which officially separated itself from its Jewish roots at the Council of Nicaea (A.D. 325) and at the Second Council of Nicaea (787) banned all Jewish life in Yeshua.
did not: Grk. ou, adv. See verse 2 above. know: Grk. ginōskō, aor., to know, including (1) to be in receipt of information; know, learn, find out; (2) form a judgment or draw a conclusion; think, understand, comprehend, perceive, notice, realize, conclude; or (3) have a personal relationship involving recognition of another's identity or value; make acquaintance, recognize. The second meaning applies there. In the LXX ginōskō translates Heb. yada, which has a similar wide range of meaning, but in most occasions refers to a personal knowledge, whether of knowing persons or knowing by experience, as well as knowing by learning from a teacher (DNTT 2:395).
Stern paraphrases the fictive opponent's retort, "Granted that they may have heard," replies the opponent, "it still is not their fault that they have not come to faith in Yeshua. Isn't it rather that Israel didn't understand the message they heard?" Paul responds with a quotation from the Torah.
First: Grk. prōtos, adj. The basic idea has to do with 'beforeness.' The term is used in two ways: (1) having primary position in a temporal sequence; first, earlier, earliest; and (2) standing out in significance or importance; first, most prominent, most important, first of all. The first meaning fits best here. Moses: Grk. Mōusēs. See verse 5 above. Shulam notes that "the meaning of the phrase [first Moses] seems merely to be an indication of textual priority: first Moses, then Isaiah [in the next verse], both communicating the same message. The order mimics the order of the Tanakh organization in the phrase "Torah and the Prophets" (Matt 7:2; 22:40; Luke 16:16; Acts 13:15; 24:14; 28:23; Rom 3:21).
says: Grk. legō, pres. Paul proceeds to quote a poetic parallelism from the last half of Deuteronomy 32:21, which reads in full.
MT: "They have provoked me to jealous by not what is God; they have moved me to anger by their foolish idols; So I will provoke them to jealousy by those who are not a nation, by a foolish nation I move them to anger." (BHIB)
LXX: "They provoked me to jealousy over that which is not god; they provoked me to anger with their idols; and I shall provoke them to jealousy over that which is not a nation; over a senseless nation I will provoke them to anger." (ABP)
There are important differences between the MT and Paul's Greek translation in that the MT uses two separate words for "nation" and Paul's translation is in the second person whereas both the MT and LXX passages are in the third person. The second person makes it clear that Israel is being addressed.
I: Grk. egō (for Heb. ani), pronoun of the first person; that is, God. will provoke jealousy: Grk. parazēloō (from para, "from close beside" and zēloō, "boil over with desire"), fut., make jealous or provoke to jealousy. The verb occurs only four times in the Besekh, three times in this letter. Mounce defines the verb to mean provoke to jealousy, to excite to emulation ("jealous rivalry"), or to provoke to indignation. Jealousy may be expressed in two different ways: (1) to be envious of someone, or resentful against a rival, a person enjoying success or advantage; (2) being zealous for something, a vigilance in maintaining or guarding something; a fervor for a person, cause, or object.
In the LXX parazēloō translates Heb. qana (SH-7065), which spans a range of emotional reaction from envy, to jealousy, to zealousness and to jealous anger (BDB 888). This term is attributed to Yeshua when he cleansed the temple (John 2:17). The translation of "jealous" may lead the reader to assume that God intended to foster an attitude of discontent or covetousness with regard to another's advantages, but that does not seem to be the point of the Deuteronomy passage.
in you: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person; i.e., Israel or more specifically the leadership of Israel. on: Grk. epi, prep. See verse 11 above. With the dative case of the noun following epi conveys direction. Contrary to the common translation of "by" in many versions the preposition does not denote agency of receiving action, but of imposing action that is against another. The preposition could even be translated as "against."
those not: Grk. ou, adv. a people: Grk. ethnos, humans belonging to a people group. Mounce gives the root meaning as multitude or company. In the LXX ethnos normally translates Heb. goy (SH-1471), nation, people (first in Gen 10:5), but in the quoted passage translates Heb. am (SH-5971), folk, people, nation. The expression "not a people" would imply the ethnos is not defined by any political autonomy. Rashi defines the "non-people" as a nation that has no name, as Scripture states, "This land of the Chaldeans-this people was not" (Isa 23:13).
However, it's worth considering that the am ha-aretz ("people of the land") in the time of Yeshua were despised by the ruling classes and religious elite as ignorant masses accursed for not knowing and keeping Torah (cf. John 7:49; Sotah 22a; Pesachim 49b). on: Grk. epi. a nation: Grk. ethnos for Heb. goy. In the Tanakh the term "nation(s)" (Heb. goy/goyim) is used for people groups defined by language and culture, including descendants of Isaac and Jacob and the nation of Israel (cf. Gen 10:5; 12:2; 17:4; 18:18; Ex 19:6; Deut 4:6; Ps 106:5; Isa 9:1; 42:1, 6; Jer 5:15; Ezek 4:13; 36:13-14; Mic 4:2-3).
The term ethnos is used often in the Besekh for "Gentiles" in contradistinction to Jews and Israel (e.g., Matt 5:47; Acts 2:27; 21:21; 26:17; Rom 3:29; 9:24; 11:25; 1Cor 1:23; Gal 2:14-15), but is also used of the Samaritan Jews (Acts 8:9) and Israel (Matt 21:43; John 18:35; Acts 24:10, 17; 26:4; 1Cor 10:18). Often ethnos is used in a geographical sense with a diverse population that would include descendants of Jacob as residents or citizens (Matt 12:21; 24:14; Acts 17:26; Rom 1:5; 16:26; Gal 2:9; 1Tim 3:16).
without understanding: Grk. asunetos, without good sense, lacking comprehension; foolish, dense, or thick. In classical Greek writings the term had two meanings: (1) void of understanding, witless; (2) not to be understood, unintelligible (LSJ). In the LXX asunetos translates Heb. nabal, foolish or senseless (Deut 32:21), as well as Heb. shagah, err, go astray (Ezek 45:20). This is a person who has no perception of ethical or religious claims. Sirach uses the term to denote those who do not obtain wisdom (Sir 15:7).
In the Testament of Levi the term is used to describe Shechem (7:2), a prejudicial slur against Samaritans. The term occurs only five times in the Besekh, first in Matthew 15:16 where Yeshua uses it of his disciples (para. Mark 7:18). Paul previously used asunetos in this letter (1:21, 31) to describe those living in former ages without the knowledge of God or in rebellion to the knowledge of God. See my commentary there.
The "nation without understanding" being envisioned could thus be a group of people ignorant of Torah or a people lacking the knowledge of God. A foolish people is opposite to the wise and understanding people Israel could have become by keeping God's commandments (Deut 4:6).
I will provoke anger: Grk. parorgizō (from para, alongside, and orgizō, to be angry), fut., means to incite to anger. Mounce defines the verb as "provoke to anger, irritate, or exasperate." The verb refers to a strong condition of displeasure with the behavior of another. The displeasure may be focused inward with an attitude of indignation or outward in potential or realized offensive behavior. in you: Grk. humeis; or, "I will incite you to anger against a nation without understanding."
Who is the target of this anger? Considering the context of Deuteronomy 32 this is a strange passage for Paul to quote in his argument that Israel had heard the message of Messianic salvation. Immediately following the passage quoted Moses details a series of horrors that will fall upon Israel for their rebellion against God (Deut 32:22-35). Israel's anger could be directed against God for implementing the curses prescribed in the Torah and certainly against those who wielded the sword against them, such as the Assyrians and Babylonians.
Keil, in his commentary on Deuteronomy, believes the expression "not a nation" refers to a nation whose political and judicial constitution is the work of man and which had not the true God as its king, or in the words of Paul, a people "separate from Messiah, excluded from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise" (Eph 2:12) (995). Edwards, like other commentators, believes that Paul's use of the prophecy here anticipates his argument in chapter eleven that inclusion of the Gentiles in salvation will provoke the Jews to jealousy so that they will accept the good news.
Shulam echoes this interpretation with his assertion that the Deuteronomy passage "specifically states that God will make Israel jealous by the worship of the Gentile nations." On the contrary, Deuteronomy 32:43 simply says "Rejoice O nations with my people." Moses offers no direct prophecy that the Gentiles will bow down and worship the God of Israel, thereby making Israelites jealous. And why would they be jealous, when "strangers" had been welcome in Israel from the time of the Exodus?
The common interpretation of Jews becoming envious of Christians and thereby embrace Yeshua as Messiah fails to account for the context of Deuteronomy 32 and rests on the false assumption that the recipients of apostolic ministry were mostly Gentiles. However, the linguistic evidence of Acts supports the thesis that the primary audience for the apostolic message was Jewish. Most of the Gentiles that responded favorably to the apostolic message were proselytes or God-fearers who had a working knowledge of Torah and lived by the moral principles of Torah (cf. Acts 10:1-2; Rom 2:17, 26).
In Luke's narrative of apostolic ministry and the apostolic letters where is the Jewish envy of Gentile worship of their God? Where is the anger of unbelieving Jews over apostles taking the good news to Gentiles? We have the experience of Peter, but he had to explain himself to Messianic Jewish leadership, not unbelieving Jews (Acts 11:1-3). The only testimony of an angry unbelieving Jew becoming transformed is Paul himself and that required a direct and personal revelation of Yeshua. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of unbelieving Jews who felt betrayed by the "heresy" of Messianic fulfillment that threatened political equilibrium in Judea (cf. John 11:48).
Therefore, I think the words of Paul need to be reexamined in the light of the historical setting. There is simply no historical evidence of Jews accepting the Messiah out of envy of believing Gentiles. The Jews in the first century who responded favorably to the Messianic message did so out of expectation and longing for the fulfillment of promises made to the patriarchs. So the usual interpretation is inadequate to understand Paul's point. If the verbal phrase was translated as "I will incite zealousness," a very different interpretation results.
Consider first that the terms "non-nation" and "people without understanding" in the context of the ministry of Yeshua and the apostles refer to Jewish people prior to Pentecost. When the good news was proclaimed thousands enthusiastically responded to embrace Yeshua as Savior and Messiah. The followers of Yeshua, whom Barnabas and Paul labeled as "Messianic" (Acts 11:26), had no political power and were easily subject to persecution by ruling authorities. Initially Jewish leaders were willing to maintain the status quo (cf. Acts 5:34-39), but the outspoken ministry of Paul proclaiming Yeshua as Messiah incited a wrathful response.
The opponents of Paul were not envious. They were full of rage. The book of Acts records numerous incidents of open and aggressive hostility by unbelieving Jews, particularly synagogue leaders, against the Jewish apostles and especially Paul: first in Damascus (Acts 9:23), then in Jerusalem (Acts 9:29; 12:2-3; 21:27; 22:22; 23:1-22), in Paphos (Acts 13:6-8), in Antioch (Acts 13:45), in Iconium (Acts 14:2,5), in Lystra (Acts 14:19), in Thessalonica (Acts 17:5), in Berea (Acts 17:13), in Corinth (Acts 18:5-6), in Macedonia (Acts 20:3, 19), and in Caesarea (Acts 24:9; 25:2, 7).
Paul also commented that he received 39 lashes five times from unbelieving Jews (2Cor 11:24). The zealous anger of non-Messianic Jews created a great divide as Yeshua had prophesied about the division that would take place. That division continued into the next century. After the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 the Pharisees "doubled down" in their definition of orthodox religion and utterly rejected the Messianic message. Rabbi Akiva (A.D. 40-137) systematized the oral traditions to create a single Judaism and became the reputed father of Rabbinic Judaism. He also began the work to finalize both the canon and the Hebrew text of the Tanakh.
Akiva manifested a pronounced hostility against Messianic Jewish believers, the "Christians," and their devotion to Yeshua. Worst of all he declared Simeon ben Kosiba to be the Messiah and changed his name to the Aramaic "Simon bar Kokhba," i.e. "son of a star," an allusion to Numbers 24:17. The rebellion led by Kokhba did not, of course, result in the Messianic Age but utter disaster for the Jewish people. (For a definitive survey of Akiva's life and influence see Daniel Gruber, Rabbi Akiba's Messiah: The Origins of Rabbinic Authority, Elijah Publishing, 1999.)
20― Moreover Isaiah is very bold and says, "I was found by those not seeking me, I became manifest to those not asking after me."
Reference: Isaiah 65:1.
Moreover: Grk. de, conj. Isaiah: See verse 16 above. is very bold: Grk. apotolmaō, pres., which refers to a venturesome courage; be very bold, come out boldly in use of strong words. The syntax does not mean that Paul is connecting Isaiah's name with the first person "I" in the quote, who is God. Isaiah was a faithful prophet who preached a confrontational message that eventually led to his death. and: Grk. kai, conj. says: Grk. legō, pres. See verse 6 above. Paul is concluding his argument that began at 9:30-31. Paul then quotes from Isaiah 65:1, but it is a free translation with the verbs "found" and "became manifest" in reverse order as found in the LXX.
I was found: Grk. heuriskō, aor. pass., to come upon by seeking; find, locate or by something happening; find, come across, discover. by those: pl. of Grk. ho, definite article but used as a demonstrative pronoun. not: Grk. mē, adv. seeking: Grk. zēteō, pres. part. See verse 3 above. me: Grk. egō, pronoun of the first person. I became: Grk. ginomai, aor. mid., to transfer from one state to another, and here means come to be, become, take place, happen, occur. manifest: Grk. emphanēs, readily perceptible; visible, well known, manifest. The term occurs only two times in the Besekh (also Acts 10:40).
to those: pl. of Grk. ho. not: Grk. mē. asking after: Grk. eperōtaō, pres. part., may mean (1) put a question to, ask; or (2) make a request, ask for. The first meaning applies here. me: Grk. egō. As Paul has argued previously in this letter the initiative for salvation lay with God. This truth applies to both the Jews and the Gentiles who believed in Yeshua. Commentators typically interpret "those not seeking" with pagan Gentiles who were occupied with their own pursuits, as well as various cults and superstitions (Harrison).
In context the prophecy of Isaiah is directed to Israel, not to a pagan Gentile nation, and its fulfillment started with Israel. We might say that pagan Gentiles were not seeking the God of Israel, but in all fairness the sermons of Yeshua indicate that unrighteousness characterized too many of his Jewish contemporaries (cf. Matt 3:3; 7:13-14; 12:39; Luke 16:14). Yeshua wouldn't have needed to command people to repent and seek the Kingdom of God, if they had already been doing it (Matt 4:17; 6:33).
21― Furthermore to Israel He says, "All the day I have held out my hands to a disobeying and contradicting people."
Reference: Isaiah 65:2.
Furthermore: Grk. de, conj. See verse 6 above. The conjunction indicates that Paul is continuing his thought from the previous verse, not creating a contrast between a supposed pagan nation and Israel. to: Grk. pros, prep. of direction or motion; to, toward. Israel: Grk. ho Israēl. See verse 19 above. He says: Grk. legō, pres. See verse 6 above. Paul emphasizes that Isaiah was speaking to Israel with a message for them. He then quotes from Isaiah 65:2, which echoes 9:31. All: Grk. holos, signifier of a person or thing understood as a complete unit; "all," "whole," or "entire."
the day: Grk. ho hēmera , "day" (for Heb. yom), normally refers to the daylight hours from sunrise to sunset or the complete day that included the night, but here is used of a long or imprecise period. It may seem as if God is using hyperbole to make His point, but God emphasizes His exceeding longsuffering with Israel from the time He brought the nation out of Egypt. I have held out: Grk. ekpetannumi, aor., to hold out, to spread out. The verb occurs only here in the Besekh. In the LXX ekpetannumi translates Heb. paras (SH-6566), to spread out or stretch out.
my: Grk. egō, pronoun of the first person. hands: pl. of Grk. ho cheir, hand as an anatomical term, but used here idiomatically of power, control or agency. God uses an anthropomorphic expression that speaks of a man opening his arms to draw another towards him in an embrace. From the beginning God regarded Israel as a son (Ex 4:22). Moreover, God pledged His covenant faithfulness to Israel and was persistent in sending messengers to proclaim a future hope even when Israel was unfaithful. God likened His faithfulness to Israel as the reliability of the moon and stars to provide light on the earth (Jer 31:35-37).
to: Grk. pros. a disobeying: Grk. apeitheō, pres. part., to disobey, be rebellious or resist; from apeithēs, not subject to persuasion or direction. The present tense indicates an ongoing activity. In the LXX of the quoted verse apeitheō translates Heb. sarar (SH-5637), stubborn or rebellious. and: Grk. kai, conj. contradicting: Grk. antilegō, pres. part., to speak or say in opposition. The verb may mean either to speak in an adversarial manner (contradict or argue against) or to take a position in opposition to. In the LXX of the quoted verse antilegō translates a Hebrew construction that means "walk after their own thoughts."
people: Grk. laos, a group of humans, understood geographically or ethnically, and often in the Besekh people groups associated with the God of Israel. In the LXX laos translates Heb. am (SH-5971), people or kinsman, first in Genesis 14:18. The term is used to denote inhabitants of a city, a locality, a nation, and even common people in contrast to the ruling or religious elite. In the quoted verse laos refers not to every Israelite that ever lived, but as qualified by the participles denote first the unfaithful leaders of the northern Kingdom of Israel and then subsequently the Kingdom of Judah that led the people astray and brought about their punishment of exile into Babylon.
Even though God regarded Israel as a son, the nation's leaders had too much in common with the prodigal son in Yeshua's parable (Luke 15:11). The spiritual condition of Israel's leaders did not come from a lack of opportunity to hear the good news or a lack of understanding of its content, but must be traced to a stubborn and rebellious spirit such as cropped up in the days of Moses and the days of the prophets. It is all the more grievous to Paul because God has spoken His final word in His Son (Heb 1:1-2) and both the nation's leaders and many synagogue rulers had refused the redemption God so graciously offered.
Christians, in reading of Paul's tough love language, should be cautious of being judgmental of Israel. There is far too much of spiritual deafness, complacency and outright disobedience to God's expectations in modern Christian churches. We, too, need to carefully consider Paul's admonition for our lives.
BAG: Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. trans. W.F. Arndt & F.W. Gingrich. The University of Chicago Press, 1957.
Barclay: William Barclay, The Letter to the Romans, Westminster Press, 1975.
BBMS: Henry Morris, Biblical Basis for Modern Science. Baker Book House, 1984.
BDB: The New Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon. London: Oxford University Press, 1907. Reprinted by Associated Publishers and Authors, Inc., 1981.
Bivin: David Bivin, Cataloguing New Testament Hebraisms: Part I, Jerusalem Perspective, 7 Sept 2010; <http://blog.jerusalemperspective.com/archives/000135.html>, accessed 8 Sept 2010.
Bruce: F.F. Bruce, The Hard Sayings of Jesus. InterVarsity Press, 1983.
Cook: Edward M. Cook, The Psalms Targum: An English Translation, 2001.
Craigie: P.C. Craigie, The Book of Deuteronomy. William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1976. (The New International Commentary on the Old Testament)
Danker: F.W. Danker, The Concise Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, University of Chicago Press, 2009.
DHE: Franz Delitzsch (1813-1890), The Delitzsch Hebrew-English Gospels. Vine of David, 2011. [English translation by the Messianic Jewish publisher]
DM: H.E. Dana & Julius R. Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament. The Macmillan Co., 1955.
DNTT: Colin Brown, ed., Dictionary of New Testament Theology. Zondervan Pub. House, 1975.
Edwards: James R. Edwards, Romans, New International Biblical Commentary, Vol. 6. Hendrickson Publishers, 1992.
GNT: The Greek New Testament, eds. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Bruce M. Metzger, & Allen Wiegren. American Bible Society, 1966.
Gruber: Daniel Gruber, The Separation of Church and Faith, Volume 1: Copernicus and the Jews. Elijah Publishing, 2005.
Harrison: Everett F. Harrison, Romans, Expositor's Bible Commentary, Vol. 10, Software version 2.6. Zondervan Corp, 1989-1999.
HELPS: Gleason L. Archer and Gary Hill, eds., The Discovery Bible New Testament: HELPS Word Studies. Moody Press, 1987, 2011.
Keil: C.F. Keil, The Pentateuch, T&T Clark, 1866. Keil and Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament (1866-1891), Vol. 1. Hendrickson Publishers, 2006.
LSJ: Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon. Rev. Sir Henry Stuart Jones. Clarendon Press, 1940. Online.
Marshall: Alfred Marshall, NASB-NIV Parallel New Testament in Greek and English. Zondervan Pub. House, 1986.
Metzger: Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, 2nd ed. German Bible Society, 1994.
Mounce: William D. Mounce, Mounce Concise Greek-English Dictionary of the New Testament. 2011. Online.
Neil: James Neil, Palestine Explored. James Nisbet & Co, 1882.
Rashi: Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi (1040-1105), Commentary on the Tanakh. Online.
Rienecker: Fritz Rienecker, "Romans," A Linguistic Key to the Greek New Testament, Vol. 2, Zondervan Pub. House, 1980.
Robertson: Archibald Thomas Robertson, "Romans," Word Pictures in the New Testament, Vol. 4, Broadman Press, 1933. (Parsons CD-ROM Version 2.0, 1997)
Schurer: Emil Schurer, A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ. 4 vols. trans. Peter Christie. T&T Clark, 1885.
Shulam: Joseph Shulam, A Commentary on the Jewish Roots of Romans, Lederer Books, 1997.
Stern: David Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary, Jewish New Testament Publications, 1996.
Zodhiates: Spiros Zodhiates (1922-2009), ed. The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament. AMG Publishers, 1992, 1993.
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