Notes on Genesis 29

Blaine Robison, M.A.

Published 13 November 2021


Scripture Text: The Scripture text of this commentary is prepared by Blaine Robison based on the Westminster Leningrad Codex found at The essentially literal translation seeks to reflect the Hebraic character of the author and writing. Other Bible versions may be quoted. Click here for Abbreviations of Bible Versions.

Sources: Bibliographic data for works cited may be found at the end of the chapter commentary. Works without page numbers are cited ad loc. Important Jewish sources include the following:

LXX: The abbreviation "LXX" ("70") stands for the Septuagint, the Jewish translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, which was in use among Jews by the mid-2nd century B.C. Online.

MT: The Masoretic Text is the authoritative Hebrew text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism. Work on developing a uniform Hebrew Bible began in the 2nd century under Rabbi Akiva, but completed by Jewish scholars known as the Masoretes between the 7th and 10th centuries A.D. The oldest extant manuscripts date from around the 9th century. Online.

Talmud: Unless otherwise indicated references to the Talmud are from the Soncino Babylonian Talmud (1948); available online at The Jerusalem Talmud, identified with "TJ," may be found here. Click here for Talmud abbreviations.

Targums: The targums are early Aramaic translations of the Hebrew text with commentary: Targum Jerusalem (1st c. AD), Targum Neofiti (1st c. AD), Targum Onkelos (c. 35–120 AD) and Targum Jonathan (2nd c. AD). See an index of Targum texts here.

Special Terms: In order to emphasize the Hebraic nature of Scripture I use the terms ADONAI (for 'LORD' when quoting a Tanakh source), Tanakh (Old Testament), Besekh (New Testament), Yeshua (Jesus) and Messiah (Christ).

Syntax: Unless otherwise noted the meaning of Hebrew words is from The New Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (1981), abbreviated as "BDB" and the meaning of Greek words is from F.W. Danker, The Concise Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (2009). Parsing information for Hebrew verbs is taken from John Joseph Owens, Analytical Key to the Old Testament (1989). An explanation of Hebrew verbs and grammatical construction can be found at


Jacob, the son of Isaac, grandson of Abraham, lived c. 2006−1859 B.C. (Purkiser 441). His story is narrated in Genesis 25—50. Jacob's mother, Rebekah had been barren for twenty years, but after Isaac her husband prayed for her God opened her womb for conception (Gen 25:21). A husband's prayer for his wife is an important covenantal principle (cf. 1Pet 3:7). For a biographical review of the life of Jacob see my article Our Father Jacob.

Many Christian commentators have suggested that Jacob's trip to Haran in Chapter Twenty-Nine was a punishment for his treatment of his brother (Morris 455). Critics of Jacob overlook some important facts about Esau. Paul referred to Esau as an immoral and godless man (Heb 12:16). In other words Esau was a playboy, controlled by his sensual appetites, and lived as if ADONAI didn't exist. Esau almost succeeded in stealing the covenantal blessing that belonged to Jacob in the first place.

God decreed before Jacob's birth that he would be first over his brother Esau (Gen 25:23). In fact, according to Jewish midrashic interpretation Jacob was formed in the womb before his fraternal twin brother (Genesis Rabbah 63:8; Rashi). The birthright and covenantal promises belonged to Jacob and his mother's plan of deception was necessary to prevent a spiritually blind Isaac with his lust for venison from committing a colossal blunder of transferring the Abrahamic covenant to their godless son Esau.

This was spiritual warfare and Satan wanted Esau to get the covenantal blessing. In that light Rebekah and Jacob broke no commandment to preserve God's purpose. Maybe the deception wasn't "nice," but Rebekah was a spiritual warrior who sought to insure the transmission of the covenant and the line of the Seed of Salvation promised to Chavah in the garden. Isaac never rebuked his wife for her actions, probably because he realized he had been about to commit a much greater wrong. Don't forget, it was God who said, "Jacob I have loved and Esau I have hated" (Mal 1:2-3). However you interpret those verbs it is clear that God's favor rested on Jacob. Thus, in Genesis 28:5 Moses gives first place to Jacob.

Chapter Overview

Jacob's meeting of Rachel at the well is the Torah's second of three meetings at watering holes that lead to marriage (cf. Gen 24:11–27; Ex 2:15–21). Each involves (1) a trip to a distant land, (2) a stop at a well, (3) a young woman coming to the well to draw water, (4) a heroic drawing of water, (5) the young woman going home to report to her family, (6) the visiting man brought to the family, and (7) a subsequent marriage.

Upon his arrival in the land of Padam-aram Jacob saw a well with a great stone rolled upon it and three flocks of sheep lying by it. Jacob learned that the men were from Haran, a principal city of the region, and that they knew Laban. While waiting Jacob saw Laban's daughter Rachel coming with his sheep. When Rachel arrived Jacob rolled the stone from the well's mouth, and watered Laban's sheep. Jacob then kissed Rachel, wept, and told her that he was her kinsman.

Rachel ran and told her father who immediately came to meet Jacob, embraced and kissed him, and brought him to his house. Jacob told Laban all that had happened to him, and Laban welcomed Jacob as family. After Jacob had lived with Laban for a month, Laban asked Jacob what wages he wanted for his work. Laban had two daughters, Rachel and Leah, and Jacob loved Rachel. Jacob offered to serve Laban seven years as a bride price for Rachel, to which Laban agreed.

Jacob served the years, and when he asked Laban for his wife, Laban hosted a feast to celebrate the marriage. However, in the evening, Laban brought Leah to Jacob, and they consummated. Laban gave Leah Zilpah to be her handmaid. In the morning, Jacob discovered the substitution, and complained to Laban that he had served for Rachel. Laban claimed that their custom was not give the younger before the firstborn, but if Jacob fulfilled Leah's week, he would give Jacob both daughters in exchange for another seven years of service.

Jacob consented to this arrangement. Laban then gave him Rachel as wife, and gave Bilhah to Rachel as her handmaid. Jacob loved Rachel more than Leah, so God allowed Leah to conceive, but Rachel was barren. The chapter concludes with the birth of four sons by Leah: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah.

Chapter Outline

Arrival in Haran, 29:1-8

Meeting with Rachel, 29:9-12

Bargain with Laban, 29:13-20

Week of Marriages, 29:21-30

Birth of Four Sons, 29:31-35

1 And Jacob went on his journey, and came to the land of the sons of the East.

And Jacob: Heb. Ya'akov, son of Isaac and grandson of Abraham, who lived c. 2006−1859 B.C. (Purkiser 441). Jacob was of the Aramean people (Deut 26:5). His story is narrated in Genesis 25—50. The meaning of the name of Jacob is also not known for certain, although Keil suggests the name is derived from the verb aqav (SH-6117), "follow at the heel," denominative of aqev (SH-6119), "heel," thus "heel-holder," since he was holding on to the heel of Esau at birth. On the other hand, David Stern says the name means "May God be your defending rear guard" (cf. Isa 52:12) (CJSB 46).

The name of "Jacob" certainly had no pejorative connotation when the parents gave it to him contrary to Christian definitions. At this time Jacob was over 70 years of age and considering his death at 147 he was in the prime of his life. Yet, he was unmarried, even though his brother Esau had married at the age of 40 (Gen 26:34).

went: Heb. nasa, Qal impf., to lift, carry or take; lit. "lifted." on his journey: Heb. regel, the body part that is used for walking or running; the foot; used here fig. of walking on a journey. Jacob left Bethel strengthened in spirit by the nocturnal vision from ADONAI and the confirmation of His covenantal promise (Keil). The long journey was apparently uneventful. and came: Heb. halak, Qal imperf., to come, go, or walk. The clause is lit. "lifted his feet and walked." to the land: Heb. erets designates either (a) the earth in a cosmological sense, or (b) land in the sense of a specific territorial area belonging to a people group; here the latter.

of the sons: pl. of Heb. ben, "son," "son of," which is used in three distinctive ways: (1) to identify direct paternity; (2) to mean not the actual father but a more distant ancestor; or (3) to mean in a broader sense of having the characteristics of. The second meaning is intended here. of the East: Heb. qedem, which may be used as a noun to mean (1) a location, primarily east as a direction from a specific point; (2) a temporal reference, aforetime, ancient time; or (3) an adverb to mean eastward or toward the east (BDB 869f). Here the second meaning is intended. The term is not used in the sense of the Orient.

The noun by itself could allude to the fact that Haran was about four degrees east of Beersheba (Barnes). Of interest is that the LXX translates qedem with Grk. anatolē (from anatellō, "to cause to rise"), which may mean (1) rising, an astronomical term used of a heavenly body rising above the horizon; or (2) the east as a direction of the sun's rising, i.e., the dawn. The descriptor "sons of the East" denotes the lands eastward across the Euphrates River, also known as Mesopotamia. Historically speaking, the phrase "sons of the East" refers to the descendants of those who migrated from the region of Shinar (aka Sumer) after the confusion of languages (Gen 11:9). The ancestors of Jacob are said to have originally come from the city of Ur in that region (Gen 11:27-28).

This verse summarizes the long trip of some 400 miles from Bethel. He had left his home in Beersheba, obeying the instruction of his parents to go to Haran to seek a wife from the household of his mother's relations (Gen 27:46; 28:1-2), so that he would not marry pagan women like Esau.

2 And he looked, and behold a well in the field, and behold, there were three flocks of sheep lying by it, for from that well they watered the flocks. And a large stone was on the mouth of the well.

And he looked: Heb. ra'ah, Qal impf., to see. and behold: Heb. hinneh, interjection, lo, behold. The interjection often serves to enliven divine monologues and narratives, particularly as a call to closer consideration and contemplation of something, to introduce something new or to emphasize the size or importance of something. Many versions minimize the impact of the interjection with the lame translation "and saw." The use of the interjection here by Moses announces a divine appointment. For Jacob the interjection implies seeing something unexpected.

a well: Heb. ha-be'er (be-ayr'), generally a well containing water, often made by digging. This type of well was apparently not a well of flowing water, but rather of stored water. in the field: Heb. sadeh, field, land, used of open pasture land. This was not the well where Rebekah drew water, which was just outside the city (Gen 24:11), and she obtained the water by going down the steps which led to it (Gen 24:16). and behold: Heb. hinneh. there were: Heb. sham, adv., there, thither, emphasizing the location. three: Heb. shalosh, the number three. flocks: pl. of Heb. eder, a flock or herd of domesticated animals. of sheep: Heb. tson, small cattle, sheep and goats, flock.

lying: Heb. rabats, Qal part., stretch oneself out, lie down, lie stretched out. by it: Heb. al, prep., upon. for: Heb. ki, conj., that, for, when. from: Heb. min, prep., from, out of. that: Heb. hu, pron., he, she, it. well: Heb. ha-be'er. they watered: Heb. shaqah, Hiphil impf., cause to drink water, give to drink. the flocks: pl. of Heb. eder.

And a large: Heb. gadol, adj., "great," which may describe magnitude, size, number, intensity, sound volume, age, or importance. stone: Heb. ha-eben, a stone, without specification of the exact mineral. The term was used for a variety of objects, such as natural rocks, including sling stones, and hewn stones for a worship pillar, building foundation, furniture, vessels, idols and writing tablets. This stone would have been quite heavy, and require two or three men to roll away. was on the mouth: Heb. peh, mouth, generally the organ of eating and drinking but used here of an opening or orifice of a structure. of the well: Heb. ha-be'er (be-ayr').

Gill comments that this stone was laid upon the well, partly to keep the water from flowing out, and being wasted, that there might be a sufficiency for the flocks; and partly to keep the water pure and clean, that it might be wholesome for the flocks, as well as entire for the use of those that had a property in it.

3 And there would be gathered all the flocks, and they would roll the stone from the mouth of the well and water the sheep, and put back the stone on the mouth of the well in its place.

Morris suggests there must have been a local regulation regarding the well stipulating that its stone covering only be removed in the evening, at which time all the flocks of the vicinity were to be watered in turn, in order of arrival. Thus, there were some that came to "get in line" quite early.

4 And Jacob said to them, "My brothers, from where are you?" And they said, "We are from Haran."

And Jacob: Heb. Ya'akov. See verse 1 above. said: Heb. amar, Qal impf., to make a statement or utterance, whether mentally, orally or in writing, and often used to introduce quoted material; to utter, say, shew, command or think. The focus of the verb may be declarative, interrogative or imperative. to them: Heb. l'hem, prep., 3p-pl. Morris notes that Jacob spoke in Aramaic or Chaldee, the language of the region, and a language evidently well known to Abraham and therefore to Isaac and Jacob. Aramaic is a Semitic language that originated among the Arameans. Languages were created by God at Babel, some 1,757 years after creation in the time of Peleg (Gen 10:25; 11:7; Morris 676).

My brothers: pl. of Heb. ach, a male sibling, whether born of the same mother and father (Gen 4:2); or only the same mother (Gen 20:5). This was a friendly greeting, but also "my brothers" emphasizes their common lineage as Arameans (cf. Deut 26:5). from where: Heb. ayin, interrogative adv., from where, whence. are you: pl. of Heb. attah, second person pronoun, you. The question is natural since there was no city in sight. And they said: Heb. amar, Qal impf., 3p-pl.

We are from: The phrase emphasizes the location as the place of residence, but also likely birthplace. Haran: Heb. Charan ("crossroads"), an important city of northern Mesopotamia located on the Balik River at the conjunction of major trade routes. It was an ancient seat of worship of Sin, the moon-god (BDB 357). There is nothing in the statement to indicate whether Haran, the town, was near or far off (Lumby). At this time Haran was ruled by Elam (Atlas 54). See the map of Haran here. Perhaps amazed at this information Jacob was naturally interested in determining whether the shepherds could help him in his goal.

5 And he said to them, "Do you know Laban, the grandson of Nahor?" And they said, "We know him."

And he said: Heb. amar, Qal impf. See the previous verse. to them: Heb. l'hem, prep., 3p-pl. Do you know: Heb. yada, Qal perf., 2p-pl., to know, and refers to a personal knowledge, whether of knowing by experience or knowing by learning from a teacher. The perfect tense emphasizes completed action in the past with continuing results into the present. Laban: Heb. Laban ("law-vawn"), an Aramean, brother of Rebekah, wife of Isaac (Gen 24:29; 25:20).

the grandson: Heb. ben, "son," "son of," which is used in three distinctive ways: (1) to identify direct paternity; (2) to mean not the actual father but a more distant ancestor; or (3) to mean in a broader sense of having the characteristics of. A number of versions translate the noun as "son," but properly the meaning is "grandson" (AMP, CJB, CSB, NOG, NCV, NIV, NLT).

of Nahor: Heb. Nachor, a personal name given to two men: (1) the father of Terah (Gen 11:22); and (2) the son of Terah and brother of Abraham (Gen 11:26), here the latter. Laban's father is identified elsewhere as Bethuel (cf. Gen 22:20-22; 25:20; 28:5). Jacob's query sought to establish the ground for his bride search, since he had been instructed to seek a wife from the daughters of Laban (Gen 28:2).

And they said: Heb. amar, Qal impf., 3p-pl. We know him: Heb. yada, Qal perf., 1p-pl. The perfect tense emphasizes knowledge of long-standing.

6 And he said to them, "Is he well?" And they said, "He is well, and behold, Rachel his daughter is coming with the sheep."

And he said: Heb. amar, Qal impf. See verse above. to them: Heb. l'hem, prep., 3p-pl. Is he: Heb. lo, prep., used here interrogatively. Some versions translate the preposition as "is it," but the word is masculine in form. well: Heb. shalom, completeness, soundness, welfare, peace, prosperity. Shalom is never peace in the negative sense, the absence of conflict, but the possession of everything that makes for man's highest good. Jacob was not simply asking about Laban's health, but about his complete circumstances, whether he was experiencing God's favor. Speaking in Aramaic Jacob would have said shelam, which has the same meaning as shalom.

And they said: Heb. amar, Qal impf., 3p-pl. He is well: Heb. shalom. The shepherds understood fully what Jacob was asking and affirmed that everything was good with Laban. and behold: Heb. hinneh, interjection. See verse 2 above. The interjection announced the imminence of the divine appointment.

Rachel: Heb. Rachel ("raw-khale"), a personal name meaning "ewe." his daughter: Heb. bat, a female offspring, a daughter, whether by birth or adoption, daughter of. The noun can also mean a young woman. Rachel is later identified as the younger daughter of two (verse 16). is coming: Heb. bo, Qal part., to approach, arrive, come in, or come. with: Heb. im, prep. the sheep: Heb. ha-tson. See verse 2 above.

7 And he said, "Behold, the day is yet high; it is not time for the livestock to be gathered; water the flock, and go, pasture them."

Jacob was perplexed by the fact that the flocks of sheep were resting by the well so early in the day. His question perhaps reflects his own experience as a shepherd and it might appear to be a criticism. Morris suggests that Jacob's motive was simply that he wanted to be alone with Rachel when she came.

8 But they said, "We are not able, until that all the herds be gathered, and they have rolled away the stone from the mouth of the well, and we will water the sheep."

The shepherds tending the flocks were apparently young lads and the stone was too large and heavy for any one or two of them to move. It was easier therefore to have the well opened by several helping each other once day.

9 Now while he was still speaking with them, then Rachel came with the sheep that of her father, for she pastured them.

Rachel had the responsibility of pasturing sheep, that is, overseeing their grazing and welfare. This was an unusual responsibility since Laban did have sons who also cared for the flocks (Gen 30:35; 31:1). While her age is never given she was not likely a young girl. She was of marriageable age, but not married because her sister had yet to marry (Gen 29:26). Thus, it was by God's providence that Rachel should bring Laban's sheep to the well instead of her brothers.

10 And it came to pass that Jacob saw Rachel, the daughter of Laban, brother of his mother, and the sheep of Laban, brother of his mother, and Jacob went near and rolled the stone from the mouth of the well and watered the flock of Laban, brother of his mother.

And it came to pass: Heb. hayah, Qal Impf., to fall out, come to pass, become, be. that: Heb. asher, particle of relation, conj., who, which, that. The opening clause emphasizes the fulfillment of God's sovereign plan. Jacob: Heb. Ya'akov. See verse 1 above. saw: Heb. ra'ah, Qal perf., to see. Rachel: Heb. Rachel. See verse 6 above. the daughter of: Heb. bat, a female offspring, a daughter, whether by birth or adoption, daughter of. The noun can also mean a young woman. Laban: Heb. Laban. See verse 5 above. brother: Heb. ach, a male sibling, brother.

of his mother: Heb. em, a female parent, mother. Rachel was thus a first cousin of Jacob of which there is no biblical impediment for marriage. and: Heb. eth, conj. the sheep: Heb. tson, small cattle, sheep and goats, flock. of Laban: Heb. Laban. brother: Heb. ach. of his mother: Heb. em. and Jacob: Heb. Ya'akov. and went near: Heb. nagash, Qal impf., to draw near, approach. and rolled: Heb. galal, Qal impf., to roll, roll away. the stone: Heb. ha-eben. See verse 2 above. from: Heb. al, prep.

the mouth: Heb. peh. See verse 2 above. of the well: Heb. ha-be'er. See verse 2 above. Having been informed of Rachel's identity, Jacob perhaps impulsively acted to remove the stone. He was older and stronger than the shepherd boys, but his unusual strength and energy might be explained as a gallant gesture to impress his beautiful cousin. and watered: Heb. shaqah, Hiphil impf., cause to drink water, give to drink. the flock: Heb. tson. of Laban: Heb. Laban. brother: Heb. ach. of his mother: Heb. em, 3ms. Jacob then took the initiative to give water to the flock of Laban.

We should note that in this verse Laban is identified three times as the "brother of his mother." This triple mention by Moses emphasizes the obedience of Jacob to the specific instruction from his parents to seek out Rebekah's brother in order to take a wife from his daughters (Gen 27:46; 28:1-2).

11 And Jacob kissed Rachel, and lifted his voice and wept.

And Jacob: Heb. Ya'akov. See verse 1 above. kissed: Heb. nashaq, to kiss. Kissing is the act of touching or pressing with the lips slightly pursed, in an expression of affection, love, greeting, reverence, etc. It is not clear whether Jacob threw a kiss by his hand (Job 31:27), kissed her on the cheek or kissed her on the mouth (cf. Prov 24:26; SS 1:2). Kissing was a common practice between relatives (Gen 27:26-27; 29:13; 31:28, 55; 33:4; 45:15; 48:10; 50:1).

Rachel: Heb. Rachel. See verse 6 above. and lifted: Heb. nasa, Qal impf. See verse 1 above. his voice: Heb. qol, sound or voice. and wept: Heb. bakah, to weep or bewail, whether from grief, humiliation, gratitude or joy. In Scripture people weep for a variety of reasons, whether from grief, humiliation, gratitude or joy. Unlike laughing weeping conveys strong deeply personal emotions. It opens that secret part of ourselves that we keep hidden from the world. Indeed weeping reveals vulnerability. Commentators offer an explanation of why Jacob shed tears.

Clarke: "And wept. — From a sense of the goodness of his heavenly Father, and his own unworthiness of the success with which he had been favored. The same expressions of kindness and pure affection are repeated on the part of Laban, Genesis 29:13."

Gill: "and lifted up his voice, and wept; for joy at the providence of God that had brought him so opportunely to the place, and at the sight of a person so nearly related to him; and who he hoped would be his wife, and was the person designed of God for him."

Edersheim: In the warmth of his feelings at finding himself not only at the goal of his journey, but apparently God-directed to her whose very appearance could win his affections, he embraced his cousin. Even in this little trait the attentive observer of Jacob's natural character will not fail to recognize "the haste" with which he always anticipated God's leadings." (Book I, Chap. 17, p. 87)

Lumby: "The suddenness of Jacob’s opportune meeting with his relatives, the removal of doubt and anxiety from his mind on entering a strange country, and the apparition of his young and fair cousin, had all deeply stirred his emotional nature. Cf. the tears of Joseph, Genesis 45:2; Genesis 45:14."

Rashi: "and wept:" Since he foresaw with the Holy Spirit that she (Rachel) would not enter the grave with him. Another explanation: Since he came empty-handed, he said, "Eliezer, my grandfather’s servant, had nose rings, and bracelets and sweet fruits in his possession, and I am coming with nothing in my hands. [He had nothing] because Eliphaz the son of Esau had pursued him to kill him at his father’s orders; he (Eliphaz) overtook him, but since he had grown up in Isaac's lap, he held back his hand. He said to him (Jacob), "What shall I do about my father's orders?" Jacob replied, "Take what I have, for a poor man is counted as dead." - [from Bereshit Rabbathi by Rabbi Moshe Hadarshan]"

12 And Jacob told Rachel that he was a relative of her father, that he was a son of Rebekah, and she ran and told her father."

And Jacob: Heb. Ya'akov. See verse 1 above. told: Heb. nagad, Hiphil impf., lit. "be conspicuous," to tell, announce, make known. Jacob introduced himself. Rachel: Heb. Rachel. See verse 6 above. that: Heb. ki, conj. he was: Heb. hu, third person pronoun. The verb "to be" is implied. a relative: Heb. ach, lit. "brother." See verse 4 above. of her father: Heb. ab, which may denote an ancestor, a biological parent, or a head of a family or clan, as well as a term of respect and honor. The term is used here of Rachel's paternal parent.

that: Heb. ki. he was: Heb. hu. a son: Heb. ben. See verse 1 above. of Rebekah: Heb. Rivkah. She was the daughter of Bethuel the son of Milcah, the wife of Abraham’s brother Nahor (Gen 24:15), then the wife of Isaac (Gen 24:51. These two facts of familial information makes Jacob a nephew of Laban and first cousin to Rachel. and she ran: Heb. ruts, to move with haste, to run. and told: Heb. nagad, Hiphil impf. her father: Heb. ab. Apparently her mother was dead and she had no one to tell but him (Rashi, citing Genesis Rabbah 70:13).

Works Cited

Atlas: Oxford Bible Atlas, Second Edition. ed. Herbert G. May. Oxford University Press, 1974.

Barnes: Albert Barnes (1798-1870), Notes on the Whole Bible (1834). Baker Book House, 1949. Online.

BMR: Bereshith Midrash Rabbah, Hebrew.

BDB: The New Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon. London: Oxford University Press, 1907. Reprinted by Associated Publishers and Authors, Inc., 1981. Online at

CJSB: David Stern, The Complete Jewish Study Bible. Hendrickson Publishers, 2016.

Clarke: Adam Clarke (1760-1832), Commentary on the Holy Bible: Genesis (1826). Ed. Ralph Earle. Baker Book House, 1967. Also online.

DNTT: Dictionary of New Testament Theology. 3 Vols., ed. Colin Brown. Zondervan Publishing House, 1975.

Edersheim: Alfred Edersheim, Bible History Old Testament (1876-1887), Updated Edition. Hendrickson Publishers, 1995. Also online.

Gill: John Gill (1697-1771), Exposition of the Entire Bible: Genesis. Online.

Ginzberg: Louis Ginzberg, "Chapter VI: Jacob," The Legends of the Jews, Public Domain, 1909. Online.

Henry: Matthew Henry (1662-1714), Commentary on the Whole Bible (1710). Unabridged Edition. Hendrickson Publishers, 1991. Online.

Kaiser: Walter C. Kaiser, The Promise-Plan of God: A Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testaments. Zondervan, 2008.

Keil: C.F. Keil (1807-1888), Pentateuch, Vol. 1, Commentary on the Old Testament (C.F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, 1866-1891), Hendrickson Publishers, 1996. Online.

Lumby: J. Rawson Lumby, Genesis, The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge University Press, 1891. Online.

Morris: Henry Morris, The Genesis Record: A Scientific & Devotional Commentary on the Book of Beginnings. Baker Book House, 1976.

NASBEC: New American Standard Bible Exhaustive Concordance, Updated Edition. Foundation Publications, Inc., 1998.

Purkiser: W.T. Purkiser, ed. Exploring the Old Testament. Beacon Hill Press of Kansas City, 1955.

Rashi: Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi (1040-1105), Commentary on the Tanakh. Online.

Sailhamer: John H. Sailhamer, Genesis, Expositor's Bible Commentary, Vol. 2. Software version 2.6. Zondervan Corp., 1989-1999.

Schaeffer: Edith Schaeffer, Christianity is Jewish. Tyndale House Publishers, 1975.

Schurer: Emil Schurer, A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ. 4 vols. trans. Peter Christie. T&T Clark, 1885.

SECB: James Strong (1822–1894), Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible (1890). Online.

SH: Reference to a Hebrew word in James Strong (1822-1894), Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible (1890). Print versions available from various publishers. Online.

TLV: Messianic Jewish Family Bible: Tree of Life Version. Messianic Jewish Family Bible Society, 2015. Online.

TWOT: R. Laird Harris, ed., Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Moody Press, 1980.

Wesley: John Wesley (1703-1791), Genesis, Explanatory Notes on the Bible. Online.

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