Blaine Robison, M.A.
An Exegetical Commentary
Published 16 August 2021; Revised 24 August 2021
Scripture Text: The text of 1 Corinthians 5 is prepared by Blaine Robison based on the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament. The essentially literal translation seeks to reflect the Jewish character of the author and writing. Other Bible versions may be quoted. Click here for Abbreviations of Bible Versions. Quotations marked with the initials "BR" indicate the translation of the commentary author.
Sources: Bibliographic data for works cited may be found at the end of the chapter commentary. Works without page numbers are cited ad loc. Important Jewish sources include the following:
● DSS: Citations marked as "DSS" are from the Dead Sea Scrolls, a collection of Jewish manuscripts of Scripture and sectarian documents found in the Qumran caves. Most of the Qumran MSS belong to the last three centuries BC and the first century AD. Online DSS Bible.
● LXX: The abbreviation "LXX" ("70") stands for the Septuagint, the Jewish translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, which was in use among Jews by the mid-2nd century B.C. Online.
● Josephus: Citations for Josephus, the first century Jewish historian (Yosef ben Matityahu), are from The Works of Flavius Josephus (c. 75–99 A.D.) trans. William Whiston (1737). Online.
● Targums: The targums are early Aramaic translations of the Hebrew text with commentary: Targum Jerusalem (1st c. AD), Targum Neofiti (1st c. AD), Targum Onkelos (c. 35–120 AD) and Targum Jonathan (2nd c. AD). See an index of targum texts here.
Syntax: Unless otherwise noted the meaning of Greek words is from F.W. Danker, The Concise Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (2009), and the meaning of Hebrew words is from The New Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (1981), abbreviated as "BDB." See the Greek Guide for the meaning of grammar abbreviations and pronunciation of Greek words. Parsing data for Greek words is from Anthony J. Fisher, Greek New Testament. The numbering system of the Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible is identified with "SH" (Strong's Hebrew #) and "SG" (Strong's Greek #). Strong's Online.
Terminology: In order to emphasize the Jewish nature of the apostolic canon and its central figure I use the terms ADONAI (for 'LORD' when quoting a Tanakh source), Yeshua (Jesus), Messiah (Christ), Tanakh (Old Testament), and Besekh (New Testament).
See Introduction to First Corinthians for background information on the letter.
In this chapter Paul confronts the congregation concerning an egregious sin being tolerated, that of immorality. Paul issues a stern rebuke and initiates discipline of the errant member by his own authority and then issues explicit instruction on relations with sinning members. Especially important is that a sinning lifestyle is totally incompatible with being a follower of Yeshua and anyone who claims to be a brother in Messiah while living in such a manner is a liar and must not be included in the fellowship of true believers.
Immorality Exposure, 5:1
Apostolic Discipline, 5:2-5
Festival Instruction, 5:6-8
Separation from Sinners, 5:9-11
Summary Judgment, 5:12-13
Immorality Exposure, 5:1
1 Actually immorality is reported among you, and such immorality which is not even among the Gentiles, so as to have a wife of the father.
Actually: Grk. holōs, adv. in reference to totality; altogether, assuredly. immorality: Grk. porneia, every kind of unlawful sexual intercourse (BAG), or sexual conduct condemned and forbidden in Scripture (e.g., Leviticus 18). The word-group originally meant to prostitute or practice prostitution, whether by a man or woman (DNTT 1:497). In the LXX porneia translates (1) Heb. zenunim (SH-2183; masc.) prostitution, Genesis 38:24; (2) zenuth (SH-2184; fem.), harlotry (Num 14:33); and (3) zanah (SH-2181), be or act as a prostitute (Jer 2:20). Specific immoral acts prohibited in Scripture include:
● Adultery (v. Heb. na'aph; Grk. moicheuō/moichaō; n. Heb. niuph/naaphuph; Grk. moicheia), copulation between a man and a married woman (Ex 20:14; Lev 20:10; Deut 5:18; Mark 10:19; Luke 18:20; Rom 13:9; Jas 2:11).
● Bestiality (Heb. shekobeth, "copulation"), copulation between an animal and a man or woman (Lev 18:23; 20:15).
● Homosexuality (n. Grk. arsenokoitēs), copulating with a male as with a female, a sodomite or pederast (Lev 18:22; Rom 1:27; 1Cor 6:9; 1Tim 1:10). Condemnation of lesbianism may be inferred from Romans 1:26.
● Incest (Heb. basar, "flesh"), copulation between a man and a female relative, whether by blood or by marriage, including daughter (Lev 18:6), mother (Lev 18:7; Ezek 22:10), step-mother (Lev 18:8; 20:11; Deut 22:30; 27:20; Ezek 22:10), sister (Lev 18:9; 20:17; Deut 27:22), grand-daughter (Lev 18:10), half-sister (Lev 18:11), aunt (Lev 18:12-14; Lev 20:19-20), daughter-in-law (Lev 18:15; 20:12), sister-in-law (Lev 18:16; 20:21; Mark 6:18), and mother-in-law (Lev 18:17).
● Menstrual Intercourse (Heb. niddah, "impurity;" Heb. tum'ah, "uncleanness"), copulation between a man and a woman during her menses (Lev 18:19; 20:21; cf. Heb 13:4).
● Prostitution (v. Heb. zanah, "play the harlot," n. Heb. qadesh, "temple prostitute;" zanuth, "harlotry;" Grk. pornē, "female prostitute;" pornos, "male prostitute"), copulation for money (Lev 19:29; Deut 23:17; 1Cor 6:15-16).
Some versions translate porneia as "fornication" (ASV, DRA, JUB, KJV, NMB, OJB), which can be misleading. The English word "fornication" is defined as "voluntary sexual intercourse between two unmarried persons or two persons not married to each other" (Dictionary.com). The first part of the definition would include prostitution and the second part of the definition would include adultery. However, in the Torah consensual sex between a single man and single woman, not related to each other, was not specifically prohibited, but it did create a marriage obligation (cf. Ex 22:16-17; Deut 22:23-27).
Immorality (porneia) was condemned by Yeshua (Matt 5:32; 15:19; 19:9; Mark 7:21) and later prohibited by apostolic decree (Acts 15:20, 29; 21:25). Paul addresses the threat of immorality in his letters and exhorts disciples to remove immorality from their lives (1Cor 6:18; 10:8; 2Cor 12:21; Eph 5:3; Col 3:5; 1Th 4:3; Heb 12:16). He classified persistence in porneia as grounds for God to exclude a person from the Kingdom of God (Gal 5:19, 21).
is reported: Grk. akouō, pres. pass., may mean (1) to hear, with the focus on willingness to listen or to heed the substance of what is said; (2) hear with comprehension, understand; (3) receive information aurally, hear, hear about; or (4) a legal term of hearing a case. The third meaning dominates here. The story Paul relates may have come to him via the household of Chloe (1Cor 1:11). among: Grk. en, prep., with the root meaning of "within," generally used to mark position or place (among, at, by, in, on, within), but also may mark means (by, by means of) (DM 105). The preposition properly denotes "in the realm (sphere) of," as in the condition (state) in which something operates from the inside (HELPS).
you: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. and: Grk. kai, conj. that marks a connection or addition. Kai has three basic uses: (1) continuative, 'and, also, even;' (2) adversative, 'and yet, but, however;' or (3) intensive, 'certainly, indeed' (DM 250f). The first use applies here. such: Grk. toioutos (from toios, "such, such-like," and houtos, "this"), demonstrative pronoun, of such a kind, such as this. immorality: Grk. porneia. which is: Grk. hētis, fem. of hostis, relative pronoun, relative pronoun used as a generalizing reference to the subject of a verb or a preceding entity; who, which.
not even: Grk. oude, adv., negative particle used here to link a negative statement to a preceding statement in terms of explanation; not even, not. among: Grk. en. the Gentiles: pl. of Grk. ho ethnos, humans belonging to a people group. In the LXX ethnos generally renders Heb. goy (SH-1471; pl. goyim), "nation, people" (DNTT 2:790). The term ethnos is first used in Genesis 10 to describe the list of seventy nations, then of descendants of Abraham (Gen 12:2) and then even more specifically of Israel (Ex 19:6; Deut 4:6; Ps 106:5; Isa 9:1).
In the Besekh ethnos may refer generally to any people distinguished by language and culture (Matt 24:7; Acts 10:35; Rev 5:9), including Israelites and non-Israelites. The term presumptively means "Gentiles" here and refers to people outside of the majority Jewish constituency of the congregation in Corinth. For an explanation of the constituency of congregations in the apostolic era see my article The Apostolic Community.
Another consideration is that since Ioudaioi ("Jews") really refers to traditional Jews, then the plural "Gentiles" can include descendants of Jacob that live as Gentiles. Traditional Jews regarded any descendant of Jacob that lived as a Gentile as not being truly Jewish. In addition, Paul said that he had been entrusted with the good news for the "uncircumcised" (Gal 2:7), as well as the "Gentiles" (Gal 2:2, 8-9). Paul treats "uncircumcised" and "Gentiles" as synonyms (cf. Rom 2:14, 26), and many Jews in the Diaspora were uncircumcised (Tarn & Griffith 223-227).
so as: Grk. hōste, conj. which connects cause to necessary effect and emphasizes the result; so that, therefore, so then, so as to. to have: Grk. echō, pres. inf., to have, hold or possess, with a wide range of application. The verb is used here in a sexual sense and the present tense emphasizes a continuing relationship. a wife: Grk. gunē, an adult female person, without respect to age, marital or social status except as defined in the context. In the LXX gunē renders Heb. ishshah (SH-802), woman, wife (Gen 2:22). The context favors "a wife."
of the father: Grk. ho patēr normally of a male biological parent or ancestor, here the former. The verbal description implies that the wife of the father was cohabiting with the son, so that the offense was common knowledge. Christian commentators typically define the immoral conduct as incest, but in modern culture incest generally refers to intimate contact with a blood relative (cf. Lev 18:6). In this situation a male member of the congregation had taken a current wife of his father (Lev 18:8). This manner of description means that the woman was not the biological mother of the offender.
The woman could be a second wife taken by a widowed father, thereby making her a stepmother. The description could also allude to the practice of polygamy. Polygamy was sanctioned by Torah and commonly practiced among Jews in the apostolic era (Sanh. 2:4; Yeb. 44a; Josephus, Ant. XVII, 1:2). This story could be comparable to that of Reuben, the eldest son of Jacob who violated Jacob's concubine Bilhah (Gen. 35:22, 49:4). In Jewish culture all wives and concubines of a man were entitled to the same degree of respect and care.
Mare suggests the offender married the wife of his deceased father, and quotes the Roman orator Cicero (pro Cluent 5, 6) who stated that such a marriage "was an incredible crime and practically unheard of." Consanguineous marriages were permitted in some ancient cultures, but Roman civil law prohibited marriages of close relatives. See the article "Incestum" in Smith's Dictionary. However, if Paul had meant marriage he would have used the verb gameō, instead of echō.
Faussett notes that in 2Corinthians 7:12 there is mention made not only of one that had done, "but of another that had suffered the wrong; which latter must be the father himself, so as there was both incest and whoredom in this fact." Gill notes that according to the Mishnah a son taking his father's wife, whether he was living or dead, was an egregious crime and worthy of death (Sanh. 7:4). In Jewish law sinning against one's father in this manner was one of 36 transgressions for which there was no atonement (K'ritot 1:1).
Apostolic Discipline, 5:2-5
2 And you are arrogant and have not mourned instead, so that the one having done this deed might be removed from your midst.
And: Grk. kai, conj. you: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. The plural pronoun probably denotes the congregation leaders. are: Grk. eimi, pres, 2p-pl., to be, a function word used primarily to declare a state of existence, whether in the past ('was, were'), present ('are, is') or future ('will be'), often to unite a subject and predicate (BAG). arrogant: Grk. phusioō, pl. perf. mid. part., in imagery of a bellows: cause to inflate with a sense of self importance; puff up, make proud, become conceited, put on airs. This arrogance may have been fueled by the offender being a prominent member, perhaps even a leader, in the congregation (cf. Rev 2:20).
and: Grk. kai. have not: Grk. ouchi, adv., particle indicating an emphatic negation. mourned: Grk. pentheō, aor., 2p-pl., engage in grieving; grieve, mourn, lament. The congregational leaders clearly had not treated the grievous sin with disapproval. Perhaps they lived by the same value system as the ancient Israelites during the time of the judges when everyone did what was right in his own eyes (Jdg 21:25). instead: Grk. mallon, adv. of increase or additive to some aspect of activity, situation, or condition; (much) more, rather.
Paul's rebuke implies that the congregation leaders should have taken a lesson from the history of Israel, as he will point out in Chapter 10, that tolerating immorality will bring the wrath of God on the congregation. The call to mourning would include repentance for tolerating the sin and failure to confront the sinning member as Yeshua required (Luke 17:3). Discovering "sin in the camp" should cause righteous leaders to recoil in shock and to seek God's direction to restore His favor (cf. Josh 7:6; 2Sam 3:31).
so that: Grk. hina, conj. used to add an idea that completes an intention expressed, in order that, so that, that. the one: Grk. ho, definite article, but used here as a demonstrative pronoun in reference to the unnamed son. having done: Grk. prassō, aor. part., to engage in activity with focus on productivity; do, perform, engage in, carry out. this: Grk. houtos, demonstrative pronoun signifying a person or thing set forth in narrative that precedes or follows it; this. deed: Grk. ergon generally means a deed, action or accomplishment, used here to refer to the wrongful sexual act.
might be removed: Grk. airō, aor. pass. subj., to raise, lift up, here meaning to move by lifting or taking from one position to another; take away, remove, carry off. The verb is used here in the sense of a membership change. from: Grk. ek, prep. may be used to denote derivation or separation, here the latter; from, out of, out from among. your: Grk. humeis. midst: Grk. mesos, adj., at a point in or near the center, middle, but in a group setting 'in the midst of' or 'among.' The adjective alludes to the congregational meeting.
3 For I indeed, being absent in body but being present in the Spirit, already have judged the one having committed this, as being present.
For: Grk. gar, conj., a contraction of ge ("yet") and ara ("then"), and in a broad sense means "certainly it follows that; for." The conjunction has an explanatory function here. I: Grk. egō, first person pronoun. indeed: Grk. mén, adv., a particle of affirmation; indeed, verily, truly. Many versions do not translate the particle. being absent: Grk. apeimi, pres. part., to be away or absent. in body: Grk. ho sōma, the physical body whether of humans and animals, used here in the figurative sense of physical presence. Paul states the obvious since he was writing from Ephesus (1Cor 16:8, 19).
but: Grk. de, conj. used to indicate (1) a contrast to a preceding statement or thought, "but;" (2) a transition in presentation of subject matter, "now, then;" or (3) a connecting particle to continue a thought, "and, also," sometimes with emphasis, "indeed," "moreover" (Thayer). The first meaning applies here. being present: Grk. pareimi, pres. part., to be by, be at hand, to have arrived, to be present. in the Spirit: Grk. ho Pneuma (for Heb. ruach, Resh-Vav-Chet), wind, breath or spirit; lit. "the Spirit," most likely referring to the Holy Spirit. Pneuma is used for the human spirit and transcendent beings (Matt 8:16; Heb 1:14), particularly the Spirit as God's self-expression (Gen 1:2; Mark 1:10). The NLT is the only version that recognizes the noun with the definite article as referring to the Holy Spirit. Almost all versions translate the phrase as "present in spirit" or words to that effect.
In the translation "present in spirit" the word "spirit" would have the meaning of a principle or attitude, which makes the phrase non-sensical. Paul is not saying, "I have the same attitude as you," since this verse is a rebuke. The use of the definite article with pneuma should be taken at face value. By saying that he was present in the Holy Spirit he emphasizes that the omnipresent Spirit is in both locations, so that Paul can speak with the authority of the Holy Spirit and by the Spirit to the situation in the Corinthian congregation.
already: Grk. ēdē, adv. with focus on temporal culmination; now, already. have judged: Grk. krinō, perf., to separate or distinguish between options, i.e. judge; to come to a decision by making a judgment, either positive (a verdict in favor of) or negative (which rejects or condemns) (HELPS). the one: Grk. ho, definite article, but used here as a demonstrative pronoun for the sinning member. having committed: Grk. katergazomai, aor. mid. part., to cause an outcome, which may focus on commission of an act or its result, here the former. this: Grk. houtos, demonstrative pronoun. The pronoun refers to the offensive sin described in verse 1 above.
as: Grk. hōs, adv. used to express comparison, time, purpose, and consequence; here of comparison. being present: Grk. pareimi, pres. part. Paul makes his judgment as if sitting physically in Corinth chairing a discipline hearing. The Torah required that someone who violated his "father's wife" was to be "cut off" from Israel (Lev 18:29), which is then defined as being stoned to death (Lev 20:11). Jewish law affirmed stoning as the proper punishment (Sanh. 7:5).
However, under the New Covenant the blood of Yeshua atones for all sins, including capital crimes, and Yeshua's own instructions for dealing with sinning members does not authorize capital punishment (Matt 18:15-19). This is not a matter that could be brought before a Greek or Roman court. The pagan courts did not punish the immorality of its citizens. Instead Paul directs that the congregation have an assembly in which the man is confronted concerning his sin.
4 In the name of our Lord Yeshua, you having assembled, and me in the Spirit, with the power of our Lord Yeshua,
In: Grk. en, prep. the name: Grk. ho onoma is used in its central sense of identifying someone with a proper name. In Hebrew literature "name" also carries the extended sense of authority, qualities, powers, attributes or reputation. of our: Grk. hēmeis, pl. pronoun of the first person. The use of the plural pronoun asserts Paul's shared identity with the congregation, especially with those in the congregation who are "sanctified" and "holy ones" by calling (1Cor 1:1).
Lord: Grk. ho kurios may mean either (1) 'one in control through possession,' owner, master; or (2) 'one esteemed for authority or high status,' thus lord or master. Both meanings can apply here. In the LXX kurios primarily substitutes for Heb. YHVH (DNTT 2:511). Kurios is the principal title by which disciples and members of the public addressed Yeshua during his earthly ministry. The title denotes being the owner-master of disciples and one who possesses all authority in heaven and earth.
Yeshua: Grk. Iēsous, a transliteration of the Hebrew name Yeshua ("Jesus" in Christian Bibles). Yeshua is a contraction of the Hebrew name Y’hoshua ("Joshua"), which means "YHVH is salvation" (BDB 221). The meaning of his name is explained to Joseph by an angel of the Lord, "You shall call his name Yeshua, for he will save his people from their sins" (Matt 1:21). Yeshua is the King of Israel (John 1:49) and the Savior of the world (John 4:42; 1Jn 4:14). For more information on the meaning our Lord's name see my web article Who is Yeshua?
you: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. The plural pronoun could refer to the entire congregation or more specifically the ruling elders. having assembled: Grk. sunagō, pl. aor. pass. part., to bring together in a collective manner; assemble, gather together. Since the sin has been public Paul calls for an orderly meeting of the congregation to consider the accusation of the wrongful relationship and impose the judgment of the apostle. and: Grk. kai, conj. me: Grk. egō, first person pronoun. in the Spirit: Grk. ho Pneuma. See the previous verse. Paul repeats his spiritual understanding that although not physically in Corinth he can stand with the righteous rulers in the Spirit.
with: Grk. sun, prep. used to denote association or close identification. the power: Grk. ho dunamis, the quality or state of being capable, here signifying divine power. of our: Grk. hēmeis. Lord: Grk. ho kurios. Yeshua: Grk. Iēsous. In this situation Paul presents himself as the chair of the congregational assembly. Invoking the power of Yeshua is equivalent to invoking the name of Yeshua as the authority possessed by the apostle.
5 you are to deliver such a one to Satan for destruction of his flesh, so that his spirit may be saved in the Day of the Lord.
you are to deliver: Grk. paradidōmi, aor. inf., to deliver or hand over, here to give over into (one's) power. The infinitive is used here to stress result. such a one: Grk. ho toioutos, demonstrative pronoun. See verse 1 above. to Satan: Grk. ho Satanas, adversary, here of the chief enemy of God and all who belong to God. Satanas may be a name, but functions more as a descriptive title. In the Besekh satanas is never used to describe a human. In both the Besekh and the LXX satanas transliterates the Heb. satan (SH-7854, "sah-tahn"), which means adversary, whether human or superhuman (BDB 966). Satan is mentioned 14 times in the Tanakh (1Chr 21:1; Job 1:6-9, 12; 2:1-4, 6-7; Zech 3:1).
Satan is a created being and not equal to God in power or knowledge. The taunt against the king of Babylon in Isaiah 14:11-15 and the lament for the king of Tyre in Ezekiel 28:11-19 depict the original perfection and downfall of the leading cherub. Exactly when this evil character was created or became evil is not disclosed in Scripture. The heavenly beings were most likely created on the second day (cf. Job 38:4-7). In the Tanakh the Adversary appears as a tempter (1Chr 21:1) and an accuser (Job 1:6; Zech 3:1). There is no question that the serpent in Genesis 3 who tempts the first couple is this person (Rev 12:9).
In the apostolic narratives Satan is depicted as a tempter (Mark 1:13; Acts 5:3), the head of a supranatural organization opposed to God (cf. Mark 3:23-26; 8:33; Eph 6:12) and an opponent of the proclamation of the good news (Mark 4:15). Yeshua said that Satan was a murderer from the beginning and the father of lies (John 8:44). The authority or dominion of Satan is such that he rules over the world (John 12:31; 2Cor 4:4; Eph 6:12; 1Jn 5:19). The great mass of the people of this world are the subjects of the dominion of Satan, and held captive to his will.
for: Grk. eis, prep., with the root meaning of "within, in," generally focuses on entrance, and in composition may be translated as "into, in, to, upon, towards, for, or among" (DM 103). The preposition expresses purpose here. the destruction: Grk. olethros, disastrous condition; destruction, ruin. The term is used of ruination and loss, but not extinction or annihilation. of his flesh: Grk. ho sarx, the soft substance of the living body, which covers the bones and is permeated with blood. The term has a variety of figurative uses in Scripture and here signifies human perspective or personal desire. The phrase "destruction of the flesh" does not mean "carry out capital punishment in accordance with the Torah (Lev 20:11)."
The punishment Paul prescribes is excommunication from the congregation, which conformed to the requirement of Jewish law. The penalty for lying with the wife of one's father was to be "cut off [Heb. kareth] from Israel" (K’ritot 1:1). The Sages interpreted "cutting off" to mean that the perpetrator's life is cut short by Providence (cf. Moed Katan 28a). For an explanation of Jewish excommunication see my comment on John 9:22.
so that: Grk. hina, conj. See verse 2 above. his spirit: Grk. ho pneuma. See verse 3 above. The mention of "spirit" here refers to the sinning member. Paul's contrast of "spirit" with "flesh" does not intend to espouse Greek dualism. Hebrew thought recognized the triune nature of a person (Gen 2:7; 1Th 5:23). The contrast is intended to emphasize that the flesh (or body) is temporal and subject to death (1Cor 15:50), whereas the spirit is eternal (Heb 12:23; 1Pet 3:19).
may be saved: Grk. sōzō, aor. pass. subj., to deliver, or rescue from a hazardous condition; save, rescue. The verb is used in reference to rescue from bodily peril or bodily death, but primarily rescue from spiritual peril (Matt 1:21; Luke 13:23; 19:10; Acts 4:12; 11:12), frequently in relation to God's final judgment (Joel 2:32; Matt 24:13; Rom 5:9). In the LXX sōzō translates no less than 15 different Hebrew verbs to describe rescue from death and deliverance from external evils, especially enemies (DNTT 3:206). God is consistently given the credit as the true source of deliverance (Deut 33:29; 1Sam 7:8; 14:6; 2Sam 22:4; Ps 34:6; 107:13).
in: Grk. en, prep. the Day: Grk. ho hēmera, may refer to (1) the daylight hours from sunrise to sunset, (2) the civil or legal day that included the night, (3) an appointed day for a special purpose or (4) a longer or imprecise period (BAG). The third meaning applies here. of the LORD: Grk. ho kurios. See verse 4 above. Paul uses the expression "Day of the LORD" (Heb. Yom YHVH or Yom ADONAI) for the appointed day that brings earth's history to a close and inaugurates the age to come when Yeshua will be king over the earth (Matt 4:7, 10; John 1:1; 8:58; 21:7; Acts 10:36; Php 2:11; cf. Ex 15:2; Ps 27:2; 118:14; Isa 12:2). Yom ADONAI incorporates both judgment and punishment of the wicked and salvation and resurrection of the righteous. See my article The Day of the LORD.
The congregation elders are to deliver Paul's summary judgment in absentia, yet the excommunication has a redemptive purpose. Stern comments that the hope is by cutting off the man from the fellowship of other believers (verse 11 below) and exposing him to the afflictions of Satan as permitted by God, he will be brought to his senses and he will repent. The second purpose of excommunication is to protect others in the Messianic community from being drawn into sin (verse 13 below).
According to Paul's next letter to the congregation the man did repent and Paul urges that the man be accepted back, in order not to discourage him beyond measure (2Cor 2:5–10).
Festival Instruction, 5:6-8
6 Your boasting is not good. Do you not know that 'a little leaven leavens the whole lump?'
Your: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. boasting: Grk. ho kauchēma, a basis or ground for pride, boasting, glorying, or exultation. is not: Grk. ou, adv., a particle used in an unqualified denial or negation; not. good: Grk. kalos, adj., meeting a high standard; fine, good. Thus, boasting is substandard. Do you not: Grk. ou. know: Grk. oida, perf., 2p-pl., to know. The verb denotes experiential knowledge, seeing that becomes knowing (HELPS). Thus, in usage the verb may denote (1) have information about; or (2) have discernment about. Paul intends the second usage here. that: Grk. hoti, conj., that, because; used here to introduce a quotation of a common proverb.
a little: Grk. mikros, adj., relatively limited in extent, used here of quantity. leaven: Grk. zumē, leaven, not to be confused with the modern yeast. In the LXX zumēs translates Heb. seor (SH-7603), leaven, and Heb. chametz, (SH-2557), that which is leavened, usually bread, both of which occur first in Exodus 12:15. Leaven, of course, is that which causes fermentation and expansion of dough or batter. Various substances were known to have fermenting qualities; but the ordinary leaven consisted of a lump of old dough in a high state of fermentation, which was mixed into the mass of dough prepared for baking. According to Jewish definition chametz refers to leavened products made from one of five grains: wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt (Pesachim 2:6; 35a).
leavens: Grk. zumoō, pres., to ferment or leaven. the whole: Grk. holos, adj., signifier of a thing understood as a complete unit and not necessarily every individual part; all, whole, entire. lump: Grk. ho phurama (from phurō, to mix substances), a mass of malleable matter formed by mixing or kneading dry and wet ingredients, here of bread dough. Moreover, toleration of immorality will instigate more sinning in the congregation.
Clean out: Grk. ekkathairō (from ek, "out of" and kathairō, "to purge, cleanse"), aor. imp., 2p-pl., to cleanse out, clean thoroughly. The verb denotes the removal of something in order to make clean. The command represents an exercise of apostolic authority. the old: Grk. ho palaios, adj., in existence for a long time, often with the connotation of being antiquated or outworn. leaven: Grk. zumē. See the previous verse. The command to remove the "old leaven" is an allusion to the removal from dwellings of all leaven and leavened products that occurs before the commencement of Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Ex 12:15; Deut 16:4).
The command alludes to the fact that the Feast of Unleavened Bread was observed in the Diaspora (Acts 20:6) and not just in Jerusalem. The removal of leaven and leavened products actually began on the evening of Nisan 13 (erev Nisan 14; Pesachim 1:3). Lamps in hand, a search was made in every cupboard and corner to ensure that no trace was to be found of leaven or chametz. Homes were also cleansed of dyer's chemicals, beer, Idumean vinegar, scribe's glue and woman's make-up (Pes. 3:1). A second search for and removal of leaven occurred on the morning of Nisan 14, an early tradition instituted prior to the birth of Yeshua as this quote from a prominent Sage attests:
"R. Judah [1st cent. B.C.] said: We search [for leaven] in the evening of the fourteenth, in the morning of the fourteenth, and at the time of removal." (Pes. 2b)
so that: Grk. hina, conj. you may be: Grk. eimi, pres. subj., 2p-pl. See verse 2 above. a new: Grk. neos, adj., in existence for a relatively short time, new, fresh. lump: Grk. phurama. See the previous verse. just as: Grk. kathōs, adv. emphasizing similarity, conformity, proportion or manner; as, just as. you are to be: Grk. eimi, pres., 2p-pl. The present tense is used here to indicate an action purposed. unleavened: Grk. azumos (from alpha "neg. prefix" and zumē, "leaven"), unfermented, free from leaven. In other words, Paul calls the congregation to a life of being "unleavened," rather than just one week of the year.
For: Grk. gar, conj. also: Grk. kai, conj. Messiah: Grk. Christos (from chriō, to anoint), the expected fulfiller of the hopes of Israel for an end-time deliverer, the Messiah. In Greek culture christos had no religious connotation at all and described someone smeared with whitewash, cosmetics or paint (DNTT 2:334). Jewish translators of the LXX chose Christos to translate Heb. Mashiach (SH-4899), Anointed One, and in so doing infused new meaning into the Greek word.
Mashiach is used in the Tanakh for the Messiah (Ps 2:2; Dan 9:25-26) and this usage defined the term among Jews in the first century. Thus, "Messiah" has special meaning as the hope of Israel, whereas the word "Christ" used by Christians has an alien and even negative meaning to Jews (Stern 1-2). For a discussion of Jewish hope and expectation of the Messiah see my article The Messiah.
our: Grk. hēmeis, pl. pronoun of the first person. The first person pronoun again emphasizes the shared Jewish identity of the congregation with Paul. Passover lamb: Grk. ho pascha, the Passover. In the LXX pascha translates Heb. pesakh (SH-6453), the passover, which is used of (1) the Passover lamb killed on Nisan 14 for the evening meal (Ex 12:21; 34:25); (2) the Passover meal itself, erev Nisan 15 (Ex 12:11), and (3) the entire seven-day festival, Nisan 15–21, in which sacrifices (Heb. chagigah) of lambs and bulls were offered (cf. Lev 23:8; Num 28:16-25; Deut 16:1-3; 2Chr 30:13-15, 24; 35:8-9) (BDB 820).
The three meanings of pesakh are also used for pascha in the Besekh: (1) the lamb slaughtered on Nisan 14 for the even meal ("Seder," Mark 14:12); (2) the evening Seder of erev Nisan 15 (Mark 14:14, 16); and (3) the entire seven-day festival (Luke 22:1). The detailed instructions for observing Passover may be found in the Talmud Tractate Pesachim and the instructions for festival sacrifices are in Tractate Hagigah. The Passover has been celebrated by Jews since God commanded the observance and gave instructions to Moses (Ex 12:1—13:16). For a detailed description of Passover observance in biblical times see my web article The Passover. With the verb following pascha is clearly intended to represent the lamb.
has been sacrificed: Grk. thuō, aor. pass., to kill as a sacrifice and offer on an altar. The verb means more than "kill" as it also suggests offering something as a spiritual sacrifice (HELPS). The verb is used generally of slaughtering an animal for food (Matt 22:4; Luke 15:23, 27, 30; Acts 10:13; 11:7), and to sacrifice an animal to appease a pagan deity (Acts 14:13, 18; 1Cor 10:20), but the verb is especially used in relation to sacrificing the Passover lamb as here (Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7).
In the LXX thuō translates the Heb. zabach (SH-2076), to slaughter for a sacrifice with various purposes (Gen 31:54; 46:1; Ex 3:18; Lev 17:5; Num 22:40; Deut 12:15), as well as Heb. shachat (SH-7819), to slaughter, especially the lamb for the Passover meal (Ex 12:21; 2Chr 30:15; 35:1, 6, 11; Ezra 6:20). Noteworthy is that thuō is not used in the LXX to describe the slaughter of an animal for a burnt offering or a sin offering, but it is used of a peace offering (Ex 24:5; Lev 17:5; 19:5; 22:29; Deut 27:7), a thanksgiving offering (Deut 12:15; 15:20-21) and the lamb killed for the Passover meal (Deut 16:1, 4-6).
The sacrifice of the Passover lamb was called Korban Pesach (Paschal offering). Instruction for the Passover sacrifice is found in chapter 5 and 6 of Pesachim. As with other animal sacrifices the offering had to be a sheep without defect. The slaughter took place on Nisan 14 at twilight, lit. "between the two evenings" (Ex. 12: 6; Lev 23:5; Num 9:3, 5), which meant from the time the sun begins to decline to that of its full setting, approximately from the ninth hour (3:00 pm) to the twelfth hour (6:00 pm) (Edersheim 813). The slaughter would be accomplished at the place in the temple designated for the purpose by those who would share the meal. During this time a Levite choir would be singing the Hallel (Psalms 113—118).
Killing the animal was accomplished by cutting the throat and then the blood was drained into the special bowl, and poured by a priest onto the base of the altar. The priests would throw the parts that were forbidden to eat into the altar fire. The carcass would be attached to a special post for skinning. With the slaughter complete the group would then take the meat to roast in a specially prepared oven.
Paul, of course, does not mean to imply that Yeshua was killed in the same manner as the lambs were slaughtered for Passover. But, his declaration does present a certain conundrum. In the nativity story an angel announced that Yeshua would die to save his people from their sins (Matt 1:21; cf. 2Cor 5:21; 1Pet 3:18). Then Yochanan the Immerser prophesied of Yeshua, "this is the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world" (John 1:29). Yochanan did not refer to the lamb killed on Nisan 14 for the Seder. Rather, Yochanan applied the Isaiah teaching on the Suffering Servant as one who would be led as a lamb to slaughter and bear the iniquities of his people (Isa 53:5-7).
During the last supper, the Passover Seder, Yeshua drew a comparison between the pierced matzah and the cup of wine to himself, but he made no comparison to the lamb served in the meal. He said of the cup, "this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins" (Matt 26:28). In this comparison Yeshua illustrated his death as an atoning sacrifice. Then Yeshua hung on the cross on Nisan 15 during the time that the annual sacrifice of the national Passover lamb was being offered (Kasdan 374), fulfilling the prophecy of Isaiah and Yochanan the Immerser.
However, Paul is clearly making a comparison between Yeshua and the lamb slaughtered for the Passover Seder. The lamb killed for the Seder was not properly a sin offering, because sin-offerings could only be eaten by priests (Lev 6:26). The Seder lamb could be viewed as a type of thanksgiving-peace offering, since it was eaten by the community and consumed on the same day it was sacrificed (cf. Ex 12:10; Lev 7:15; Deut 16:4). Yet, the slaughter of the lamb for the Seder is called a Passover-sacrifice because the blood of the lamb was collected in bowls and poured out at the base of the altar (Pes. 5:2, 3, 5; 6:1, 4).
The act of pouring out the blood at the altar represented the application of blood to the doorframes in Egypt and sanctified the lamb for the festival observance (Hirsch). What does the comparison mean? The lamb of the Passover Seder represented deliverance or salvation from death and this is the point Paul makes. Yeshua, whose name means "salvation" was sent as a Savior (John 4:42) and on the cross his blood was poured out to accomplish deliverance from eternal death (Matt 26:28; John 19:34; 1Cor 15:22).
8 so that we should celebrate the feast, not with old leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.
This verse continues the thought begun by the declaration "Messiah our Passover lamb has been sacrificed." so that: Grk. hōste, conj. See verse 1 above. we should celebrate the feast: Grk. heortazō, pres. subj., 1p-pl., to keep a feast-day, celebrate a festival. The subjunctive mood is used here in a hortatory sense, entreating the Corinthian believers to join Paul in his manner of observing the Feast of Unleavened Bread. The verb assumes the continued celebration of Torah festivals. See my article God's Appointed Times. While Passover could only be celebrated in Jerusalem (cf. Deut 16:2, 5-6), Paul set the example by observing the Feast of Unleavened Bread while he was in Philippi (Acts 20:6).
not: Grk. mē, adv. with: Grk. en, prep. old: Grk. palaios, adj. See the previous verse. leaven: Grk. zumē. See verse 6 above. not: Grk. mēde, conj., negative particle used in escalation of negation; not, nor. with: Grk. en. the leaven: Grk. zumē. of malice: Grk. kakia, moral offensiveness, whether as a general disposition or having malicious attitude toward others. In the LXX kakia is used to render Heb. ra (SH-451), bad, evil, or wicked, first in Genesis 6:5 for the evil inclination that pervaded the antediluvian culture.
and: Grk. kai, conj. wickedness: Grk. ponēria, a mindset of hurtful scheming; cunning, baseness, maliciousness or sinfulness. Thayer adds depravity and iniquity. In the LXX ponēria appears 41 times and translates Heb. ra (SH-7451), bad, evil, wicked (Ex 10:10) (DNTT 1:564). The term appears in the Wisdom literature for sinners who oppress the righteous and then in the Prophets the term reflects the spiritual condition of God's people that resulted in their exile. but: Grk. alla, conj., adversative particle used adverbially to convey a different viewpoint for consideration; but, on the other hand.
with: Grk. en. the unleavened bread: Grk. azumos. See verse 7 above. of sincerity: Grk. eilikrineia, clearness, by implication purity, sincerity. and: Grk. kai. truth: Grk. alētheia, truth, may mean (1) truthfulness, dependability, uprightness in thought and deed, (2) truth as opposed to what is false, or (3) reality as opposed to mere appearance (BAG). The first meaning has primary application here. In the LXX alētheia translates the Heb. emet (SH-571), firmness, faithfulness, or truth (BDB 54), first in Genesis 24:27.
Paul points out that removal of leaven, both literally and spiritually, is necessary for them to celebrate the festival in a righteous manner. A Jewish saying has it, "Sovereign of the Universe, it is known full well to Thee that our will is to perform Thy will, and what prevents us? The yeast in the dough [i.e., the evil inclination with us] and the subjection to the foreign Powers" (Berachot 17a).
Separation from Sinners, 5:9-11
9 I wrote to you in the letter not to associate with immoral men;
I wrote: Grk. graphō, aor., to write or inscribe as a physical act, generally in reference to a document. to you: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. in: Grk. en, prep. the letter: Grk. ho epistolē, written correspondence; letter, dispatch, epistle. In the LXX epistolē occurs 16 times translates three different Hebrew words, usually for legal, official or royal documents (2Kgs 20:12; 2Chr 30:1, 6; Neh 2:7-9; 6:5, 17, 19; Esth 3:14; 9:26, 29; Isa 39:1). Paul refers to a letter written to the congregation prior to the current letter, which did not survive. The letter might well have been purposely destroyed because of its confrontational content.
not: Grk. mē, adv. See the previous verse. to associate with: Grk. sunanamignumi (from sun, "with;" aná, "up;" and mígnumi, "mix"), pres. mid. inf., to mix up together; to associate with, mingle together with, keep company with. The verb refers to maintaining a social relationship. The prohibition to "not associate with" would apply to both men and women in the congregation. immoral men: m. pl. of Grk. pornos, properly a man who prostituted his body for hire to another's lust, a male prostitute, and by extension a man who indulges in acts of sexual acts prohibited by God (Sirach 23:16-17).
Being a pornos is a capital crime that bars a person from inclusion in the kingdom of God (1Cor 6:9; Eph 5:5) and subjects the offender to eternal damnation (Heb 13:4; Rev 21:8; 22:15). Relevant to this term is that prohibitions of specific sexual acts in the Torah are directed to men, thus men are responsible for immorality in the world. Immorality was a serious problem among first century believers, because the Greek and Roman culture made sex so accessible at pagan temples and brothels. In addition, a man might have one wife to bear his legitimate children, but he could freely have sex with a mistress, a slave or a prostitute without legal consequences (Pseudo-Demosthenes, Speeches: Against Neaera, 59:122).
The letter Paul had written to the congregation probably repeated the apostolic expectation of disciples (Acts 15:20-29), which Paul conveyed to the congregations in the Diaspora (cf. Acts 15:30).
10 not altogether immoral men of this world, or the covetous and swindlers, or idolaters, since you would need then to depart from the world.
Paul now clarifies what he meant in the previous letter. The sinful behaviors listed in this verse and the next are sub-categories of the general designation "unrighteous ones" (1Cor 6:9). not: Grk. ou, adv. altogether: Grk. pantōs, adv. expressing a decisive reaction to some matter or event expressed in context; altogether, by all means, certainly, undoubtedly. immoral men: m. pl. of Grk. ho pornos. See the previous verse. The masculine form does not necessarily exclude immoral women, but men are the primary offenders in this category.
of this: Grk. houtos, demonstrative pronoun. world: Grk. ho kosmos, order, world, is used in the Besekh and other Jewish literature to mean (1) the orderly universe, especially as created by God; (2) the earth as the place of habitation; (3) the world as the inhabitants of the earth, sometimes in reference to a segment of population; and (4) representative of people and values opposed to God (BAG). The third meaning is in view here in terms of human society.
or: Grk. ē, conj., or, than; used here to distinguish one thing from another in words of the same construction. the covetous: m. pl. of Grk. ho pleonektēs, one who has or claims to have more than his share; a covetous, avaricious person, one who defrauds for the sake of gain (Mounce). and: Grk. kai, conj. swindlers: m. pl. of Grk. harpax, properly, seizing; a sudden snatching (like in a robbery) (HELPS); given to extortion and robbery. or: Grk. ē. idolaters: m. pl. of Grk. eidōlolatrēs, a worshipper of an image or false gods, an idolater. The term includes those who attended sacrificial feasts in honor of false gods and ate of the remains of the offered animals (1Cor 10:7, 14-21).
since: Grk. epei, conj. used in a causal sense; since, inasmuch, because. you would need: Grk. opheilō, impf., 2p-pl., to be under a prescribed obligation, to have a duty or to owe someone. then: Grk. ara, conj., a marker of inference based on a preceding matter or statement; so, then. to depart: Grk. exerchomai, aor. inf., to move away from a place or position, to go or come out. from: Grk. ek, prep. See verse 2 above. the world: Grk. ho kosmos. The last clause is an axiomatic statement. The world is full of sinners, including sinners of the worst kind. Paul's statement here and the previous verse provides no grounds for a cloistered existence away from the general population.
11 But now I have written to you not to associate with anyone bearing the name "brother" if he is an immoral man, or a coveter, or an idolater, or a reviler, or a drunkard, or a swindler; not even to eat with such a one.
But: Grk. de, conj. now: Grk. nun, adv. of time in the present, 'now' or more emphatically 'right now.' I have written: Grk. graphō, aor. See verse 9 above. to you: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. The plural pronoun intends the entire congregation, but could be focused on the elders. The opening clause is designed to make clear the ethical expectation. not: Grk. mē, adv. See verse 8 above. to associate with: Grk. sunanamignumi, pres. mid. inf. See verse 9 above. anyone: Grk. tis, indefinite pronoun; a certain one, someone, anyone, anything. This pronoun is often used to distinguish someone of consequence in contrast to others, or to denote a collective commonality of those in a group, as here.
bearing the name: Grk. onomazō, pres. part., to name, to give a name to. brother: Grk. adelphos, lit. "of the same womb," and in secular Greek meant a male sibling; brother. In the apostolic narratives adelphos primarily refers to blood siblings or fellow Israelites who are of the same blood by virtue of descent from Jacob. In the LXX adelphos is used for the Heb. ach, meaning (1) brother, a male sibling born of the same mother and father (Gen 4:2); also half-siblings (Gen 20:5). We may assume that Paul's use of the plural noun here is intended in a religious or spiritual sense, rather than a strictly filial sense.
Most versions translate the noun as "brother," but some have "believer" (EHV, EXB, GNB, HCSB, NCV, NIRV, NLT, TPT) and a few have "Christian" (TLB, MSG, NET, NLV, NTE). The description "bearing the name brother" means the individual had met the minimum requirements of being considered a believer, namely confessing Yeshua as the Son of God, Lord and Savior, and being immersed.
if: Grk. ean, conj. that serves as a conditional particle and produces an aspect of tentativeness by introducing a possible circumstance that determines the realization of some other circumstance. he is: Grk. eimi, pres. subj. See verse 2 above. Paul then names six specific categories of egregious sinful behavior that would deny a person's claim of being a brother in Messiah. All the following nouns are masculine, denoting men, although the categories would not specifically exclude women. While the following sins might be considered the worst, the list is not intended to be exhaustive. Paul lists other equally bad sins in the next chapter (6:9-10) and in Galatians 5:19-21.
The hypothetical scenario of someone continuing a sinning lifestyle after accepting Yeshua is highly offensive to Paul (cf. Rom 6:1-2). In the next chapter he will point out that some of the congregation had previously been guilty of these sins, but they had been acquitted of their sins by the mercy of God and sanctified to live a holy life (1Cor 6:11). For someone who has known the way of righteousness and returns to these sins is equivalent to a dog returning to his own vomit (2Pet 2:21-22). Moreover he has trampled the blood of Yeshua by which he was cleansed and insulted the Spirit of grace, and as a result faces the wrath of God (Heb 10:29-31).
an immoral man: Grk. pornos. See verse 9 above. or: Grk. ē, conj. a coveter: Grk. pleonektēs. See the previous verse. or: Grk. ē. an idolater: Grk. eidōlolatrēs. See the previous verse. or: Grk. ē. a reviler: Grk. loidoros, used of injuring another's reputation by denigrating, abusive insults (HELPS); a railer, reviler, abuser, insolent (cf. LXX Prov 25:24; Sir 23:8). or: Grk. ē. a drunkard: Grk. methusos, addicted to intoxicating beverage; drunken, intoxicated (cf. LXX Prov 23:21; Sir 19:1; 1Cor 6:10). or: Grk. ē. a swindler: Grk. harpax. See the previous verse.
not even: Grk. mēde, conj. See verse 8 above. to eat with: Grk. sunesthiō, pres. inf., to eat with, take food together with. The verb denotes sharing a meal, whether at home or at a temple. such a one: Grk. toioutos, demonstrative pronoun. See verse 1 above. Paul extends his ruling of "turning over to Satan" (verse 5 above) as applicable to other "so-called brothers" who are guilty of capital crimes. The prohibition of table fellowship might be construed as an action that congregation members should or could unilaterally commence, but it would not be intended to supersede the requirement of confronting sinning members before separating from fellowship (cf. Matt 18:15-17; Luke 17:3; Titus 3:10; 1Tim 5:20).
Summary Judgment, 5:12-13
12 For what is it to me to judge those outside? Do you not judge those within you?
For: Grk. gar, conj. what: Grk. tis, indefinite pronoun. is it to me: Grk. egō, first person pronoun. to judge: Grk. krinō, aor. inf. See verse 3 above. those: pl. of Grk. ho, definite article but used here as a demonstrative pronoun. outside: Grk. exō, adv. of place, outside, used of a position that beyond a limit or boundary. The adverb is used here to mean outside the Body of Messiah or more specifically the local congregation. Paul then cites a basic Torah principle of justice. Do you not: Grk. ou, adv. judge: Grk. krinō, pres., 2p-pl. those: pl. of Grk. ho. within: Grk. esō, adv., located within a space; within, inside; thus the opposite of exō.
you: Grk. humeis, pl. pronoun of the second person. The plural pronoun properly denotes the congregation of believers. Belonging to a congregation implies a willingness to be bound by the rules of the fellowship and to submit to congregational leaders. By the instruction of Yeshua and the apostles the pastoral leaders have the duty and authority to confront sinful conduct of congregation members and to invoke appropriate discipline.
13 But those outside, God will judge. Remove the evil from among yourselves.
But: Grk. de, conj. those: pl. of Grk. ho, definite article, but used here as a demonstrative pronoun. outside: Grk. exō, adv. See the previous verse. The phrase "those outside" refers to the unbelievers in the community (cf. Col 4:5; 1Th 4:12), but especially the wicked who will not share in the heavenly kingdom (Rev 22:15). God: Grk. ho theos, properly, God, the Creator and owner of all things (John 1:1-3). The definite article probably signifies "the one called." In the LXX the singular theos translates the plural Heb. Elohim (SH-430), when used of the true God, the God of creation (Gen 1:1). In Hebrew thought the plural form represents fullness (DNTT 2:67).
The revelation of Elohim excludes the possible existence of any other deity (cf. Isa 44:6; 45:5-6; 46:9). Theos is not a philosophical construct for monotheism. God is a Person, and particularly the God of Israel (Ex 5:1; Isa 17:6; Matt 15:31; Luke 1:68; Heb 8:10). judges: Grk. krinō, pres. See verse 3 above. The present tense emphasizes the current activity of God, but also points to the future and the final judgment of the world (Rom 14:10; 2Cor 5:10; Heb 9:27; 10:27; 2Pet 2:9). No one is exempt from God's judgment, which is based on behavior, not belief.
Remove: Grk. exairō, aor. imp., to take away out of place, remove. The verb occurs only here in the Besekh. the evil: Grk. ho ponēros, adj., adj., evil, wicked, and generally refers to an ethical deviation from an acceptable moral or social standard, particularly as prescribed by God in His Torah. In the LXX ponēros translates Heb. ra (SH-7451), adversity, bad, evil, primarily in an ethical sense, first in Genesis 2:9; and Heb. roa (SH-7455), badness, evil conduct with willful intent, first in Deuteronomy 28:20.
from among: Grk. ek, prep. See verse 2 above. yourselves: Grk. humeis, 2p-pl. pronoun of the second person. The apostolic decree represents the authority of Yeshua the Head of the Body of Messiah. Congregations have a moral duty to remove from their membership unrepentant members guilty of the abominations listed in verse 11 above. Congregations that refuse to recognize the sinfulness of these behaviors and to remove these sinning members have effectively denied the faith and should not to be regarded as part of the Body of Messiah. "The Lord knows those who are his" (2Tim 2:19).
BAG: Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. trans. W.F. Arndt & F.W. Gingrich. The University of Chicago Press, 1957.
Danker: F.W. Danker, The Concise Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. The University of Chicago Press, 2009.
DM: H.E. Dana & Julius R. Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament. The Macmillan Co., 1955.
DNTT: Dictionary of New Testament Theology, 3 Vols. Colin Brown, ed. Zondervan Publishing House, 1975.
Edersheim: Alfred Edersheim (1825-1889), The Temple: It's Ministry and Services (1874). New Updated Edition. Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1994. Also online.
Faussett: A.R. Faussett, The First Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Corinthians. Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible (Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset and David Brown, 1871) Online.
Gill: John Gill (1697-1771), Exposition of the Entire Bible. Online.
GNT: The Greek New Testament, eds. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Bruce M. Metzger, & Allen Wiegren. American Bible Society, 1966.
HELPS: The Discovery Bible New Testament: HELPS Word Studies. eds. Gleason L. Archer and Gary Hill. Moody Press, 1987, 2011. (Online at BibleHub.com)
Hirsch: Emil G. Hirsch, "Passover," Jewish Encyclopedia (1906). HTML 2002-2021.
Kasdan: Barney Kasdan, Matthew Presents Yeshua, King Messiah: A Messianic Commentary. Lederer Books, 2011.
Mare: W. Harold Mare, 1 Corinthians. Expositor's Bible Commentary, 12 vol. Zondervan Electronic Edition, 1998.
Stern: David Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary, Jewish New Testament Publications, 1996.
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