Revelation 6

An Exegetical Commentary

Blaine Robison, M.A.

Published 26 March 2011; Revised 6 May 2020

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Scripture: The Scripture text of Revelation used below is prepared by Blaine Robison based on the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament. The essentially literal translation seeks to reflect the Jewish character of the author and writing. See my web article The Jewish New Testament. Other Bible versions are also quoted. Click here for Abbreviations of Bible Versions. Most versions can be accessed on the Internet. Messianic Jewish versions are CJB, DHE, GNC, HNV, MW, OJB, & TLV.

Sources: Bibliographic data for sources cited may be found at the end of the chapter commentary. Works without page numbers are cited ad loc. The Septuagint (LXX) is the Jewish translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek, which was in use by Jews by the mid-2nd century BC. The LXX with English translation may be found here. Unless otherwise indicated references to the Talmud are from the Soncino Babylonian Talmud (1948); available online at Click here for Talmud Abbreviations. Works by early church fathers may be found at Christian Classics Ethereal Library.

Syntax: Unless otherwise noted the definitions of Greek words is from F.W. Danker, The Concise Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (2009). See the Greek Guide for the meaning of grammar abbreviations. Definitions of Hebrew words are from The New Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (1981). The numbering system of the Strong's Exhaustive Concordance is identified with "SH" (Strong's Hebrew number) and "SG" (Strong's Greek number). Strong's Online.

Vocabulary: In order to emphasize the Jewish nature of the apostolic canon and its central figure I use the terms Tanakh (Old Testament), Torah (Law), Besekh (New Testament), Yeshua (Jesus), and Messiah (Christ).

Chapter Outline

The First Seal Opened, 6:1-2

The Second Seal Opened, 6:3-4

The Third Seal Opened, 6:5-6

The Fourth Seal Opened, 6:7-8

The Fifth Seal Opened, 6:9-11

The Sixth Seal Opened, 6:12-17

Chapter Summary

In this chapter John witnesses the opening of six of the seven seals that reveal future events that will herald the return of Yeshua the Messiah. The seventh seal, which announces divine judgments on the enemies of God, is not opened until Chapter Eight. When Yeshua breaks the seal of the first four scrolls one of the living creature commands a figure riding a horse to come into view. Each rider represents some significant circumstance or event on the earth, mostly with a negative impact. The fifth seal depicts followers of Yeshua having been martyred and waiting in heaven for justice to be done. Taken together the six seals expand on prophecies Yeshua gave in his Olivet Discourse (Matt 24:4-14, 29).

We should note that none of the seals contain any time reference concerning when they would come to pass and how long the conditions revealed would last. The time periods could even be concurrent or overlap. The effects of the seals could even be viewed as cumulative in effect. That is, the content of the second, third, fourth and fifth seals reflect a consequence of the seals that have preceded. The first five seals can easily refer to conditions that have happened throughout history since the time of the apostles with the sixth seal unveiling the events that usher in the very end of the age and the Second Coming.

The First Seal Opened (6:1-2)

1― And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four living beings saying as a sound of thunder, "Come."

And: Grk. kai, conj. that marks a connection or addition. Kai has three basic uses: (1) continuative Ė and, also, even; (2) adversative Ė and yet, but, however; or (3) intensive Ė certainly, indeed, in fact, really, verily, yea (DM 250f). The first use applies here. Kai is used in the LXX to translate the vav (ו) character added to words for conjunctive effect. There are over 50 conjunctions in biblical Greek, but kai is by far the most common in the Besekh, occurring over 9,000 times (BibleHub). The excessive use of conjunctions is evidence of either an original Hebrew text or Jewish Greek.

I saw: Grk. horaō, aor., to perceive physically with the eye, or in a fig. sense to experience extraordinary mental or inward perception. when: Grk. hote, adv., when, at which time. the Lamb: Grk. arnion, diminutive of Grk. arēn, a sheep; thus lamb. The term occurs 30 times in the Besekh, only one of which occurs outside of Revelation (John 21:15). In Revelation (first in 5:6) the Lamb is the resurrected and victorious Messiah of Israel. opened: Grk. anoigō, aor., to open, as to open a closed door or make a room accessible, but here meaning to unseal. The action signifies opening the door to the future. one: Grk. heis, adj., the number one.

of the seven: Grk. hepta, adj., the number seven. seals: Grk. sphragis may mean either a device used to certify, such as a seal or signet, or a mark left by a device for certification (Danker). The book with seven seals was introduced in 5:1. The purpose of the seals was to keep the content of the book secret. Now that the Lamb has been declared worthy and every created thing has worshipped, the Lamb proceeds to open the seals. The releasing of the seal and opening the book are viewed as one act. Thus, John only knew there were seven seals after all seven were released. Each scroll was in a roll bound by a seal, which was encased by another scroll.

and I heard: Grk. akouō, aor., to hear audibly with the ears, with focus on comprehension and understanding. one: Grk. heis. of the four: Grk. tessares, adj., the number four. living beings: pl. of Grk. zōon denotes a living being that is not human and in Revelation is not really an animal of the usual kind. See the note on 4:6. One of the striking features of the throne panorama is four of the most unusual creatures John had ever seen. The unique creatures appear several times in Revelation (4:6, 8-9; 5:8, 14; 6:3, 5, 7; 7:11; 14:3; 15:7; 19:4). They are not the seraphim Isaiah saw (Isa 6:3) or the four living beings Ezekiel saw (Ezek 1:5-25; 10:1-22). There are too many dissimilarities for these separate descriptions to be of the same creatures.

saying: Grk. legō, pres. part., to make a statement or utterance, whether mentally, orally or in writing, often used to introduce quoted material. The focus of the verb may be declarative, interrogative or imperative; here "saying, speaking." The Greek verb functions here as quotation marks for the text following since ancient writings did not contain punctuation. as: Grk. hōs, adv. used for comparison, here with focus on the idea of a pattern or model. a sound: Grk. phōnē, can mean (1) an auditory impression, sound, noise defined in the context; (2) the faculty of producing speech, voice; or (3) a system of communication, language (1Cor 14:10; 2Pet 2:16). The first meaning applies here. In the LXX phōnē generally renders Heb. qŰl (sound, voice, BDB 876), the first usage of which is God's voice (Gen 3:8), and second the human voice (Gen 3:17), and these usages occur frequently in the Tanakh with various kinds of expression (DNTT 3:113).

of thunder: Grk. brontē, thunder or a crash of thunder and refers to the thunder common to storms on earth. Come: Grk. erchomai, pres. mid. imp., 'to come or arrive' with focus on a position from which action or movement takes place. One of the four living creatures issues a command to, most likely to the rider of the horse, rather than to John (as is indicated by the KJV translation) or to Yeshua. Many copyists of the Greek MSS understood the word "Come" to be a summons to John to come and behold the sequel to the breaking of the seal, and so they added the words "and see." However, the best Greek texts contain only the summons, "come." The late variant is also found in verses 3, 5, and 7 (Ladd).

The fact that each rider appears immediately upon hearing the command to come suggests that they have been waiting for this appointed time. Whether the living creatures have names is not revealed to John, so he identifies them simply in the numerical order as they participate in the opening of the seals. Johnson suggests the analogy of a first-century amphitheater with various charioteers being summoned into the arena by the call "Come!" or "Go forth!" In this case the arena is the earth. The volume and intensity of the verbal call echoed across heaven as thunder reverberates across the sky in a passing storm. The thunderclap of the creature's voice immediately grabbed John's attention. It is obvious by John's reaction that the creature's command was not for him, since John "looked" but did not "come."

2― And I looked, and behold, a white horse, and the one sitting on it having a bow; and a crown was given to him; and he went out overcoming, and so that he might overcome.

And: Grk. kai, conj. I looked: Grk. horaō, aor. See the previous verse. and behold: Grk. idou, aor. imp., demonstrative interjection (derived from eidon, "to see"), that arouses the attention of hearers or readers. The Greek verb, like its corresponding Heb. word hinneh (SH-2009, e.g., Gen 1:29), serves to enliven divine monologues and narratives, particularly as a call to closer consideration and contemplation of something, to introduce something new or to emphasize the size or importance of something; (you) see, look, behold (BAG). John's repetition of the verb "saw" no doubt serves as John's insistence that the scene he witnessed actually happened.

a white: Grk. leukos, adj. of quality expressing impressive brightness, bright, gleaming, shining or of a color shade ranging from white to grey. In the LXX leukos translates Heb. laban, white, though white in the Tanakh may include half-yellow (DNTT 1:204). The noun occurs 25 times in the Besekh and is used of the color of a characteristic of Yeshua (Matt 17:2; Mark 9:3; Luke 9:29; Rev 1:14) or the color of apparel worn by angels or God's people (Matt 28:3; Mark 16:5; John 20:12; Acts 1:10; Rev 3:4-5, 18; 4:4; 7:9; 19:14). White is also the color of a stone given to disciples (2:17), a cloud (Rev 14:14), a horse ridden by Yeshua (19:11), and the throne of God (20:11). There are no negative or evil uses of the color white.

"White" does not mean "white-washed," which is a negative description in Scripture. Ezekiel accused false prophets of "whitewash" with their false visions (Ezek 22:18). Yeshua and Paul accused certain Pharisees of being whitewashed, appearing good on the outside but unclean on the inside (Matt 23:27; Acts 23:3). If the colors presented in this chapter are meant to symbolize some quality, then we should expect the color white in this context to represent something good.

horse: Grk. hippos, horse or steed. As he gazes intently John sees a single white horse with a rider. Horses can exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings. The only horses properly called white are born with a predominantly white hair coat and pink skin, a fairly rare occurrence. The only other ones riding white horses in Scripture are Yeshua (19:11) and the armies of heaven (19:14). In rabbinic teaching a white horse in a dream was considered to be a favorable omen (Sanhedrin 93a).

Zechariah saw two visions involving horses sent to patrol the earth (Zech 1:8-10; 6:1-8). The first vision was of a rider on a red horse followed by red, sorrel and white horses. The other vision was of four chariots pulled by red, white, black and dappled horses, which were explained to be "the four spirits of heaven" with the colors representing geographical points of the compass to which the spirits were assigned (Zech 6:5ff). While the first horses Zechariah saw were red, the first horse John sees is white. Johnson suggests that the colors may serve the same function as in Zechariah.

The fact that the first four seals reveal riders on horses is intriguing. From the earliest times horses were principally a military asset, often used to pull chariots (Gen 50:9; Ex 14:9). The horse was viewed as a key resource for national survival, which in large numbers, such as Solomon accumulated (1Kgs 10:26), served as a strong deterrent to aggression. In a battle the horse-pulled chariot of biblical days was a "combat multiplier," giving an army significantly increased speed and shock in an attack. In the first century Gentile military leaders sometimes rode horses.

The white horse was particularly favored by kings and generals for victory parades as symbolic of their power. The white horse was not actually ridden in battle since the rider could be easily targeted by the enemy (Henry). God repeatedly warned Israel not to put their trust in the strength or speed of horses (Ps 20:7) or to multiply horses (Deut 17:16). Some kings used swift horses rather than camels to carry messages (Esth 8:10, 14). In Zechariah 1:8-10 and 6:1-7 may be found the first use of horses to represent heavenly spirits sent to patrol the earth.

and the one: Grk. ho, definite article but used here as a demonstrative pronoun. sitting: Grk. kathēmai, pres. mid. part., be at rest on the haunches, to sit down or to take a seat. on: Grk. epi, prep. used primarily as a marker of position or location; 'in, on, upon, over.' it: Grk. autos, personal pronoun used to distinguish a person or thing from or contrast it with another, or to give him (it) emphatic prominence. The pronoun may mean (1) self, (2) he, she, it, or (3) the same. The second meaning applies here.

having: Grk. echō, pres. part., to have, hold or possess with a wide range of application. a bow: Grk. toxon (for Heb. qesheth, SH-7198), a weapon associated with an archer. The term occurs only here in the Besekh and may refer to the bow mentioned in Zechariah 9:13, which characterizes Judah, Ephraim and the sons of Zion (Robertson). The bow and arrow were effective arms from long-range (300-400 yards) and were used widely by the nations of the Bible (HBD). The bow was a particular weapon of the king (Rienecker) and in Scripture frequently symbolizes the ability of nations to wage war (Ps 18:34; 46:9; Jer 49:35; 51:56; Ezek 39:3; Hos 1:5; 2:18; Zech 9:10).

Ancient armies had three basic tactical weapons: ground infantry, mounted infantry (also called cavalry) and archers. Arrows were a form of artillery, and, like artillery in modern warfare, were used to precede a ground attack or cavalry charge. Bowmen could inflict heavy casualties and limit losses to their own infantry in hand to hand fighting. The bow often symbolizes divine victories in Scripture (Ps 7:12; 45:4f; Isa 41:2; 49:2f; Hab 3:9; Zech 9:13f). On the other hand, the bow is used to symbolize adversarial actions against Godís people (cf. Ps 11:2; 37:14-15; 64:3-4).

and a crown: Grk. stephanos, a wreath or crown, often made from palm branches, and in the Mediterranean world a symbol of distinction. In the Besekh the term is (1) used of a literal crown, e.g., the crown of thorns (Matt 27:29), a winning athleteís wreath (1Cor 9:25). In Revelation this crown is worn by the elders (4:4), pit locusts (9:7), the woman (12:1) and the Son of Man (14:14). In the LXX stephanos mostly represents the Heb. atarah (SH-5850), a crown or wreath, and used of both a crown worn by a king (2Sam 12:30; 1Chr 20:2), and fig. in poetic books (Job 19:9; Prov 4:9) of honor, victory or pride (DNTT 1:405).

was given: Grk. didōmi, aor. pass., generally to give something to someone, often with the focus on generosity, but may be used to mean bestow, hand over, impart, entrust, yield, put, or sacrifice (BAG). to him: Grk. autos. Considering the use of "crown" in Scripture for that worn by kings, the crown of the first rider may refer to political or governmental power, whether good or evil. The figurative use of "crown" in Scripture is drawn from the power and authority possessed by those who wore literal crowns, so the crown in this context may represent either the authority to conduct conquering or the authority exercised over those conquered.

The phrase "was given to him" repeatedly occurs in Revelation to refer to a power or authority granted to some evil personage to carry out acts contrary to Godís character, yet accomplish His will (9:1, 3, 5; 13:5, 7, 14, 15) (Johnson). Similarly, the first rider was given a crown and the fourth rider was given a sword (6:4). However, the fact of being given something is also applied to God's people (6:11; 19:8), the angels (8:2), and John in particular (11:1). In this verse the phrase merely states a fact without implying anything negative.

and he went out: Grk. exerchomai, aor., to move away from a place or position, to go or come out. overcoming: Grk. nikaō, pres. part., to win victory over, overcome, defeat (Danker). In Greek culture the verb was typically associated with military and legal combat (DNTT 1:650). The participle being a verbal adjective not only describes action, but also the character of the one performing the action. and: Grk. kai, conj. so that: Grk. hina, conj. used to add an idea that completes an intention expressed, in order that, so that, that. he might overcome: Grk. nikaō, aor. subj. The subjunctive mood of the verb indicates the intention and potential of achieving the goal. The verb occurs 14 times in Revelation and in ten of the other uses denote an action of Yeshua or his faithful disciples (2:7, 11, 17, 26; 3:5, 12, 21; 5:5; 12:11 21:7).

There is much speculation over the identity of the rider of this horse. Before going further may wish to review the four interpretive approaches to Revelation. See my article Interpretation of Revelation.

● Historicist interpreters consider the white horse as a symbol of the Roman Empire from the death of Domitian to Commodus (A.D. 96 to 180) (Gregg 102).

● Preterist interpreters consider the vision as prophesying the military conquest of nations by greater nations as occurred in ancient times by a succession of powerful empires (so Barclay and Mounce). Preterists point to the Parthians that were considered the most famous archers in ancient times and white horses were their trademark.

● Some futurists explain the meaning of the white horse and rider as the advent and rule of the Antichrist (so Johnson, Lindsey and Walvoord). Other commentators from different approaches suggest the seal represents Yeshua victorious in the world through the advance of the good news (so Irenaeus, Alford and Morris).

Many assume that the first rider is an individual while also assuming that the remaining riders do not represent individuals. Those who favor identification of the rider as the Antichrist presume that Revelation is a chronological story and that the gathering and resurrection of believers occurred before Chapter Four. However, the Antichrist will be revealed in 11:7 as a beast that arises from the abyss, not as a bow-armed rider from heaven, and there is no explanation by an angel or the Lamb identifying this rider as the Antichrist. Some commentators suggest a parallel with the vision of Yeshua returning on a white horse to slay the beast (19:11), although the Lamb is only mentioned here as the one opening the seal.

Conversely, it must be acknowledged that the word is also used of the power of the beast to overcome followers of Yeshua in his war against them (11:7; 13:7). In that circumstance "overcoming" means martyrdom. In sharp contrast to the remaining riders, no negative actions harmful to the inhabitants of the earth are described; only the end result of this rider's activity. Since conquering means to defeat an adversary, the means to the end would likely be detrimental to those being conquered. The only way a war can be won if by destroying the enemy's capacity for war. Thus, it is safe to assume that a large portion of the earth will be affected by this rider's activity. The viewpoint that the first rider represents general military conquest might seem logical, but there are other considerations, since the second and fourth seals incorporate war. The overcoming here may have a very distinctive application.

Ladd discounts the rider being Yeshua, but argues that the white horse and rider together represent the advance of the good news on the earth, which Yeshua said would continue until the end in spite of wars, civil strife, famine, pestilence, earthquakes and earth's weather run amok. Coffman, building on this interpretation, suggests that bloodshed, famine, and pestilence naturally follow the rejection of the salvation message or the failure to obey its teachings based on the principle that all human suffering is ultimately traceable to the source of sin and rebellion against God in human hearts. The interpretation of the white horse as the advance of the good news had an early appeal as indicated by the commentary of Victorinus, who said that the words of the apostles and their successors were "sent forth as arrows reaching to the human heart, that they might overcome unbelief."

Followers of Yeshua are empowered by the Holy Spirit and the word of God to overcome all spiritual obstacles. Yeshua promised the good news would be proclaimed to all the nations and then the end would come (Matt 24:14). The overcoming, then, could reflect God's promise to Abraham, "Your seed shall possess the gate of their enemies" (Gen 22:17). Indeed, in the latter half of the twentieth century evangelism began increasing every decade at a rate unprecedented since the first century, in spite of wars, oppressive governments and social upheavals. According to the best statistics available, on every continent, except North America, thousands of people have been coming to faith in Yeshua every hour, including a spiritual awakening among Jews to accept Yeshua as Messiah. The growth of the Body of the Messiah has become almost exponential and could be the fulfillment of the first seal.

Someone might object to Ladd's interpretation on the ground that the nature of evangelism depicted in the apostolic narratives is not one of overcoming people but convincing people. The Great Commission does not command disciples to go out conquering but to be faithful witnesses and make disciples of those who accept their message. The good news succeeds out of weakness. Yeshua did not intend for his followers to rule over society during the present age. Nevertheless, successful evangelism does require overcoming Satan's opposition and in doing so followers of Yeshua employ spiritual weapons (2Cor 6:7; 10:4; Eph 6:10-18).

The "bow of God" may represent God's power arrayed against all powers under Satan's control by which he seeks to prevent the end of the age events from occurring as prophesied. And, the "crown" is passed to the followers of Yeshua who suffer as a result of this great struggle and thus they do benefit and evangelism may proceed successfully thanks to the efforts of this first spirit. The spirit-riders who follow are able to inflict terrible conditions because of the initiative and success of the first spirit-rider.

Additional Note: Islamic Antichrist?

A recent interpretation is that the first seal represents the advance of Islam, even though it did not come into being until the 7th century A.D. (For background information on the origin and nature of Islam see the article A Perspective on Islam by Avner Boskey.) Some expect the Antichrist to be a Muslim, as Joel Richardson argues (The Islamic Antichrist, 2009.). Of interest is that Arabs are particularly enamored of horses and Muslims believe that when Muhammad died he ascended to heaven on a white horse (Schmitmeyer). Al Queda reportedly used a white horse graphic on their literature to symbolize their strength.

Historically, Islam has been a great enemy of Christianity and over the centuries considerable warfare has occurred between the two. Radical Islamic leaders (especially terrorists) have an ambition to defeat America, destroy Israel and conquer the world. Indeed, many of the martyrs depicted in the fifth seal include followers of Yeshua murdered by Islamic zealots.

Islam as a religion has grown considerably in numbers and political influence throughout the world in the last century. The "conquest" of Islam has been extensive in Europe and America and mosques may be found in every major city. Islam has succeeded by active immigration, growth of Muslim communities, polygamy, and active proselytizing. The expansion of Islam into "Christian" America is very worrisome. Pluralistic attitudes among Americans tend to tolerate different religious groups as long as they are law-abiding and Muslims in Western countries live normally without resorting to terrorism. Nevertheless, it is an inescapable fact that Islam is an evangelistic and missionary religion that seeks to dominate the world. Because of their intensive lobbying efforts Islam is now tolerated and even taught in American public education systems whereas Christianity and Judaism are banned.

The threat of the major Islamic regimes in the Middle East and the terrorist organizations they either openly sponsor or tacitly support cannot be ignored. And, while Muslims in the West may be law-abiding, there is great sympathy internationally in the Muslim street for anti-American and anti-Israeli terror. Radical Muslims would welcome the Antichrist, Muslim or not, since he will seek the destruction of Israel, Jews and Christians. Enthusiasm for a Muslim Antichrist would be greatly increased if they believed he were the reincarnation of Muhammad.

In the meantime, disciples of Yeshua should pray for, love and witness boldly to Muslims and pray for the release of the Holy Spirit revelation concerning Yeshua to Arab and Islamic leaders and peoples, while at the same time praying for God to do justice for the victims of Islamic terrorism.

The Second Seal Opened (6:3-4)

3― And when he opened the second seal, I heard the second living creature saying, "Come!"

And: Grk. kai, conj. when: Grk. hote, adv. He opened: Grk. anoigō, aor. See verse 2 above. the second: Grk. deuteros, second, a second one. seal: Grk. sphragis. See verse 1 above. As with the first seal, the Lamb opens the seal to reveal the contents of the scroll. I heard: Grk. akouō, aor. See verse 1 above. the second living creature: Grk. zōon. See verse 1 above. saying: Grk. legō, pres. part. See verse 1 above. Come: Grk. erchomai, pres. mid. imp. See verse 1 above. The command is given to the next rider or spirit. The designation of "second" and the sequence in which John sees these seals opened does not necessarily represent a chronology in time of their happening on earth. Indeed, they may be occurring simultaneously and the enumerating coincides with the order John saw them.

4― And another horse, red, went out and the one sitting on it; it was granted to him to take peace from the earth, and so that they will slay one another; and a great sword was given to him.

And: Grk. kai, conj. another: Grk. allos, adj. used to distinguish from one or more other entities; one, other (of two), another. horse: Grk. hippos. See verse 1 above. red: Grk. purros comes from pur, meaning flame-colored or blood-red (cf. 2Kgs 3:22). In the apostolic writings purros is found only here and 12:3 (Robertson). John notes first the horse and then its rider. Zechariah, too, had a vision of a red horse (Zech 1:8; 6:2). While commentators typically do not speculate on the significance of the horseís color, Baron suggests that red symbolizes judgment, blood and vengeance and that in accordance with Isaiah 63:3 the red horse in both Zechariah and Revelation signifies the readiness of the angel of the Lord to execute swift judgment on Israelís enemies (27).

Whatever ambiguity may exist about the first seal rider, there is no doubt that this rider is being sent to cause conflict. Actually, this will not be the first time that a spirit is used for this purpose. God once sent a spirit to instigate conflict between King Abimelech and the men of Shechem (Jdg 9:23-24). The prophet Micaiah told how the Lord sent a spirit to entice King Ahab of Israel to engage in war against King Jehoshaphat of Judah (1Kgs 22:19-23). The activity of these spirits was to bring judgment on evildoers, and so it will have the same purpose at the end of the age. The results of this spirit's activity may foster the cry for peace Ė at any price Ė that will welcome the advent of the Antichrist, since no one is able to make war with him (cf. 1Th 5:3; Rev 13:4).

went out: Grk. exerchomai, aor. See verse 2 above. and the one: Grk. ho. sitting: Grk. kathēmai, pres. mid. part. See verse 2 above. on: Grk. epi, prep. it: Grk. autos, personal pronoun. and to him: Grk. autos. was given: Grk. didōmi, aor. pass. See verse 2 above. to take: Grk. lambanō, aor. inf. The verb marks the transit of something from a position to another person who is the agent with the latter being also the receptor; to take, remove or seize. peace: Grk. eirēnē in Greek literature primarily denoted an absence of war (DNTT 2:776f). Eirēnē was used in the LXX to translate shalom, which has a much broader meaning. Shalom represents communal or even personal well being, the source of which is God alone (cf. Rom 15:33; 1Cor 14:33).

from: Grk. ek, prep., lit. "out from." the earth: Grk. , which can mean soil, land as contrasted with the sea, and the earth in contrast to heaven. In the LXX occurs more than 2,000 times and translates the Heb. erets (SH-776), earth or land, first in Genesis 1:1 (DNTT 1:517). In the Tanakh erets often designates either (a) the earth in a cosmological sense, or (b) "the land" in the sense of a specific territorial area, primarily the Land of Israel (BDB 75; TWOT 1:74). The mission of the second spirit is described as having two components. The first task of the spirit is to take peace from the earth. Mankind has always hoped for social peace, but strife is a fact of life and the continued need for armies and police forces testify to manís inability to construct a peaceful world.

Strife is manifest in ethnic divisions, family breakdown, labor-management disputes, the crime rate and civil lawsuits. The billions of dollars expended on lawsuits every year does not begin to pay for the bankrupt businesses, broken relationships and lost peace of mind. Strife will increasingly characterize the days preceding the Lordís return. Yeshua predicted in His Olivet Discourse, "because lawlessness is increased, most peopleís love will grow cold" (Matt 24:12). Lawlessness actually points to Torahlessness.

Western culture has reached a point where morality based on the Ten Commandments has been rejected. Regardless of the label chosen to describe the phenomenon, the modern world is not much different than ancient Israel where "everyone did what was right in his own eyes" (Jdg 24:25). With such self-oriented values, it is not surprising that people will no longer be willing to sacrifice for the good of others, resulting in more loss of social peace and loss of life. The second seal may well describe the pervasive planetary level of violence as existed in Noah's day that brought about God's judgment by the global deluge (Gen 6:11, 13).

and so that: Grk. hina, conj. they will slay: Grk. sphazō, fut., put to death in a violent manner; butcher, slay, slaughter. one another: Grk. allēlōn, reciprocal pronoun; each other, one another. The second task of the spirit is to instigate bloody violence, which could refer to the murder rate in society, the worldwide terrorism of Islamic jihadists and criminal groups or even civil war. The first murder in human history occurred shortly after the fall of Adam (Gen 4:8) and the violence of the antediluvian world reached such a terrible condition that God decided to remove the entire population and start over with Noah's family (Gen 6:11ff). Yeshua warned His disciples, "You will be hearing of wars and rumors of wars. See that you are not frightened, for those things must take place" (Matt 24:6).

Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., Harvard historian, has commented that World War I was thought at the time to be the war to end all wars but its cost of 15 million lives and the horrendous blood bath of World War II resulting in over forty million dead made the twentieth century the "most terrible period in Western history" (Metz 75). Yeshua said that the time of His coming would be just like the violent days of Noah (Matt 24:37). Thus, as history comes to a close the Lamb will send forth this spirit to increase killing and so fulfill His word. One can only wonder whether the escalation in terrorism and the war against terrorism since September 11, 2001 has anything to do with this spiritís activity. Time will tell.

and a great: Grk. megas is a superlative that denotes (1) a unit of measure to specify size, capacity, quantity, intensity, age, or degree of wealth, or (2) a general reference to rank, dignity, sublimity or importance. sword: Grk. machaira refers to a dagger or the Roman short sword used by ancient Roman infantry for close hand to hand combat (Mounce). was given: Grk. didōmi, aor. pass. to him: Grk. autos. The spirit is given a sword to carry out his second task. The fact that it is called "great" has nothing to do with the size of the blade or the composition of the sword but the extent of its use. With this sword the rider is able to promote violence throughout the earth.

The metaphor of the great sword is reminiscent of Yeshua's surprising statement that He "did not come to bring peace, but a sword" (Matt 10:34). While His words had a direct and immediate bearing on the division that occurred in households over a family member accepting Yeshua, he also forecast his actions in the last days. First, his sword will set the wicked against each other and then in the great and final battle when the King of Kings comes on his horse the Lamb will slay the beast with the sword (19:15). Then, He will abolish war and the implements of war (Zech 9:10). Under the reign of the Lord Yeshua there will be no need to own a firearm for personal protection and true peace will finally be achieved (Isa 2:4; Hos 2:18).

The Third Seal Opened (6:5-6)

5― And when he opened the third seal, I heard the third living creature saying, "Come." And I looked, and behold, a black horse; and the one sitting on it having a pair of scales in his hand.

And: Grk. kai, conj. when: Grk. hote, adv. He opened: Grk. anoigō, aor. See verse 2 above. the third: Grk. tritos, ordinal number from treis ('three'); third, a third one. seal: Grk. sphragis. See verse 1 above. As with the two previous seals, the Lamb opens the third seal to reveal the prophetic content of the page. I heard: Grk. akouō, aor. See verse 1 above. the third living creature: Grk. zōon. See verse 1 above. saying: Grk. legō, pres. part. See verse 1 above. Come: Grk. erchomai, pres. mid. imp. See verse 1 above. And I looked: Grk. horaō, aor. See verse 1 above. and behold: Grk. idou, aor. imp. See verse 2 above. a black: Grk. melas, adj., the color black. horse: Grk. hippos. See verse 2 above.

and the one: Grk. ho, definite article. sitting: Grk. kathēmai, pres. mid. part. See verse 2 above. on: Grk. epi, prep. it: Grk. autos, personal pronoun. having: Grk. echō, pres. part. See verse 2 above. a pair of scales: Grk. zugos may mean (1) a device used to hook up two draft animals; yoke; or (2) a suspended beam used to determine weight; balance, pair of scales. The second meaning applies here. The scale of biblical times was simply designed with a vertical beam and a horizontal crossbeam that was loosely attached at its center with a pan for weighing hung from each end of the crossbeam. The scale was typically used as a symbol of integrity, honesty and equitable treatment (Lev 19:36; Job 31:6; Prov 16:11; Ezek 45:10). in: Grk. en, prep. his: Grk. autos. hand: Grk. cheir, the body part with fingers. The rider on the horse apparently symbolizes the societal and economic conditions, because the rider does not execute any action that could bring about the circumstances as described.

6― And I heard as it were a voice in the midst of the four living creatures saying, "A quart of wheat for a denarius, and three quarts of barley for a denarius; and do not damage the oil and the wine."

And: Grk. kai, conj. I heard: Grk. akouō, aor. See verse 1 above. as: Grk. hōs, adv. See verse 1 above. a voice: Grk. phōnē. See verse 1 above. in: Grk. en, prep. the midst: Grk. mesos, adj., at a point near the center, midst, middle, in the midst of, among. of the four living creatures: See verse 1 above. saying: Grk. legō, pres. part. See verse 1 above. While looking at the rider holding the scales John hears a voice among the living creatures make an announcement about sale prices for farm products. The voice was probably God the Father since the location is described as the center of the four living creatures that in 4:6 are around the throne.

a quart: Grk. choinix indicates a dry measure of approximately 1.92 pints (Rienecker). There is a similar prophecy of inflated sale prices when Elisha passed on the word of the Lord that a seah of fine flour would be sold for a shekel on a specific day and it occurred just as Elisha said (2 Kgs 7:1, 16, 18). of wheat: Grk. sitos, grain of any kind, although in the Besekh wheat or barley may be inferred depending on the season. Given the mention of barley that follows then wheat is probably intended. Wheat is the most important cereal grass mentioned in the Bible. It was cultivated in Bible lands from early times (Gen 30:14). This grain was used for bread (Ex 29:32) and in worship offerings (Lev 2:1), and as an article of commerce (Ezek 27:17; Acts 27:38). Wheat arrives late in the year in Israel and Shavuot (Pentecost) celebrates the first fruits of the wheat harvest. A quart of wheat was the average daily consumption of a man in the first century.

for a denarius: Grk. dēnarion, a denarius, a Roman silver coin worth about 16 cents, was the average daily wage for a day laborer (Ladd). In biblical times wheat and barley, olive oil and wine were the staple foods of Israel and Asia Minor. Barley was the food of the poor and although it took more to support life, it was available even during times of famine (Robertson). In ordinary times a denarius would purchase 12-15 times as much food, but this prophecy portends the day when it will take a full dayís wage to purchase food for one day, a frightening prospect for the poor. and three: Grk. treis, the number three. quarts: pl. of Grk. choinix. of barley: Grk. krithē, barley, the grain eaten by the common person, i.e. "poor man's bread" as opposed to using the more expensive grain (wheat). Barley was also used as food for horses (HELPS).

for a denarius: Grk. dēnarion. Barley is a grain known since early times and well adapted to varied climates, ripening quickly and resistant to heat. It was usually harvested in the Spring and celebrated in Israel with the waving of a sheaf in the Temple on the first day of the week following Passover (called Reishit Katzir, "First Fruits of Harvest"). Barley was considered food for the very poor and held in low esteem as a grain. It was used in the offering of jealousy (Num 5:15), for fodder (1 Kgs 4:28) and for food (Judg 7:13; John 6:5, 13). The difference in price between the wheat and barley may reflect differences in availability and desirability.

and do not: Grk. , adv., negative particle, not. damage: Grk. adikeō, aor. subj., to do wrong in the sense of violating human or divine law or to treat someone unjustly or to injure someone or some thing. The combination of the verb with "not" functions as a prohibition or negative entreaty. the oil: Grk. elaion refers to oil of the olive tree fruit and not petroleum, as suggested by Morris. and the wine: Grk. oinos may refer either to the fermented beverage made from grapes or to a vineyard, in this case probably the latter. The announcement is not merely a statement of foreknowledge, but a decree, since He directs that the oil and wine remain undamaged.

Therefore, God is giving authority to the spirit to adversely impact wheat and barley crops, which are important, not only to the Middle East, but also to the global food market. Jobís experience with Satan indicates that spirit-beings can control forces of weather (Job 1:16, 18-19), and agricultural production is primarily dependent on the right weather, whatever the skill of the farmer may be. Of course, olive groves and grape vineyards are not grown in the same places as wheat and barley, so to damage one and not the other depicts man's common experience with the weather.

The main thrust of the verse is not to describe drought per se, because famine or shortage of food products can result from a variety of causes. The emphasis here is the economic impact of the spirit's activity. It should also be noted that the prices quoted could be what is earned from the production of these farm products, rather than their cost to the consumer. Prices fluctuate because of supply and demand along with the cost of doing business. In modern times various countries have contributed to hyperinflation as envisioned in this verse by imposing socialism on their farm industry. Those with wealth may weather such hard times, but socialist ideology, high taxes, bureaucratic regulation and price controls invariably hurt the poor.

The Lord places a limitation on the spirit's destructive activity (cf. 7:3) without which the agriculture industry might totally collapse. The instruction to avoid harming the olive oil and wine is a reminder that these crops were as necessary to Israel in ancient times as the wheat and barley and points to the revitalization of Israel whose land in these last days has "blossomed as the rose" (Isa 35:1). Prior to the establishment of Israel in 1948 the land of Israel was dry and barren. The nations that occupied the land after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians were never able to make the land produce (Sevener 129). Yet, when the Jews returned and their nation was restored, God blessed the land. Olive groves and grape vineyards are significant crops in modern Israel and it is reasonable to assume from Revelation that Israel will be protected as ancient Goshen during the terrible days to come.

The Fourth Seal Opened (6:7-8)

7― And when he opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living creature saying, "Come."

And: Grk. kai, conj. when: Grk. hote, adv. he opened: Grk. anoigō, aor. See verse 2 above. the fourth: Grk. tetartos, adj., a fourth. seal: Grk. sphragis. See verse 1 above. The Lamb of God continues to open the Book of the End of the Age and opens the fourth seal to reveal its contents. I heard: Grk. akouō, aor. See verse 1 above. the fourth living creature: Grk. zōon. See verse 1 above. saying: Grk. legō, pres. part. See verse 1 above. Come: Grk. erchomai, pres. mid. imp. See verse 1 above. Immediately the fourth living creature carries out his assignment by issuing a divine-directed command to the spirit-rider to begin his ride.

8― And I looked, and behold, a pale horse; and the one sitting on it, his name Death; and Hades was following with him. And authority was given to them over a fourth of the earth, to kill with sword and with famine and with pestilence and by the beasts of the earth.

And: Grk. kai, conj. I looked: Grk. horaō, aor. See verse 1 above. and behold: Grk. idou, aor. imp. See verse 2 above. Again, John uses the double verbs to emphasize his personal experience. a pale: Grk. chloros means the light green or yellowish green of plants and when used of persons denotes the color of sickness as contrasted with a healthy appearance. Mounce suggests the usage of chloros here refers to the color of a corpse or the blanched appearance of a person struck with terror. horse: Grk. hippos. See verse 2 above. and the one: Grk. ho, definite article. sitting: Grk. kathēmai, pres. mid. part. See verse 2 above. on: Grk. epi, prep.

it: Grk. autos, personal pronoun. his: Grk. autos. name: Grk. onoma is used in its central sense of identifying someone with a proper name. In Hebrew literature "name" also carries the extended sense of qualities, powers, attributes or reputation. Death: Grk. thanatos with the definite article, death in the natural physical sense, extinction of life. Death is an enemy of all (1Cor 15:26), and is represented here, not as a typical literary personification, but as a rider, no doubt alluding to the demonic prince that destroys life and imprisons souls in the Pit (cf. Ex 12:23; John 11:4; Rom 9:22; 1Cor 10:10; 15:56; Rev 9:11).

and Hades: Grk. Hadēs ("Hah-deis"). Originally in Greek culture Hadēs referred to the god of the underworld. In later Greek Hadēs became associated with a locale, the abode of the dead. In the LXX Hadēs occurs more than 100 times, in the majority of instances to translate Heb. Sheol, the underworld which receives all the dead (DNTT 2:206). Gilbert notes that Jewish writings in Greek adopted the Greek term (Wis 2:1; 1;6:13; 2Macc 6:23; Pss. Sol. 16:2). Josephus used the term Hades with the same meaning (Ant. VI, 14:2). In the Tanakh little is known of Sheol, except that it is a place of darkness in which joy is absent and God is not remembered (cf. Job 10:21; 17:13; 26:5; Ps 6:5; 30:9; 115:17; Prov 1:12; 27:20; Isa 5:14). Sheol may have levels as hinted with "the lowest part of Sheol" (Deut 32:22) and the use of the term "the pit," in which the most wicked and pagan nations are imprisoned (Ps 55:23; Isa 14:15; Ezek 26:20; 28:8; 32:18-32).

However, during the intertestamental period many Jews embraced the belief in the immortality of the soul and resurrection, which altered the concept of Sheol/Hades. Reward and punishment would begin after death and the souls of the righteous would enter heavenly blessedness, while the souls of the ungodly are punished in Hades (1Enoch 63:10). Josephus records that this was the position of the Pharisees and the Essenes (Wars II, 8:14). This separation is clearly presented in the parable of the rich man and Lazarus (Luke 16:22-26). Thus Hades lost its role as the resting place of all souls and became a place where the unredeemed dead await the final judgment.

The use of "Hades" here, like "Death," functions as a personification, the name of a demonic gatekeeper of the underworld (cf. LXX Job 38:17). Sheol is also personified in a number of passages (Job 26:6; Ps 18:5; 49:14-15; 89:48; Prov 1:12; 27:20; 30:16; Isa 5:14; 28:15, 18; 38:18; Hos 13:14; Hab 2:5). The literary device may be visionary, but portrays reality (cf. Jdg 9:23), since in Revelation 20:14 Death and Hades are thrown into the lake of fire. A metaphor can't be punished for eternity.

was following: Grk. akoloutheō, impf., may mean (1) to be in motion in sequence behind someone; (2) to be in close association with someone, especially as a disciple. The first meaning applies here. with: Grk. meta, prep. The preposition emphasizes close accompaniment. him: Grk. autos. Hades is seen here trailing behind Death. Hades is not riding on the back of the horse (or on any horse), but he is going throughout the earth collecting all the corpses left behind by Death. The narrative may be visionary, but portrays reality (cf. Judg 9:23), since in 20:14 they are thrown into the lake of fire. While it might seem strange that God would call on the assistance of spirit-beings in the employ of Satan, the place from which the riders come is nowhere specified and in this case God simply gives these spirits the same sort of authority as He gave Satan in the time of Job.

And authority: Grk. exousia, the right to speak or act in a situation without looking or waiting for approval; authority, right, jurisdiction. BAG, Mounce and Thayer identify a second meaning as ability to do something, capability, might, power, which proceeds from having authority. was given: Grk. didōmi, aor. pass. See verse 2 above. to them: pl. of Grk. autos. over: Grk. epi, prep. a fourth: Grk. tetartos, adj. of the earth: Grk. . See verse 4 above. Whether the fourth of the earth is a fixed portion of the earth or whether it is a percentage of all people is not clear. Death's authority is spelled out very specifically and given four means of accomplishing his mission.

to kill: Grk. apokteinō, aor. inf., to murder or end someone's life by force. with: Grk. en, prep. sword: Grk. rhomphaia. The sword here is the same large broad sword that Yeshua is depicted using in 1:16 and probably refers to warfare between nations. Yeshua said wars would continue until the end of the age (Matt 24:6) and included wars and rumors of wars among catastrophes that are the "beginning of birth pangs" (Matt 24:8) which precede the great tribulation.

and with: Grk. en, prep. famine: Grk. limos, condition of misery caused by lack of food; famine, hunger. Yeshua predicted in His Olivet Discourse that there would be famines in various places (Matt 24:7; Luke 21:11). A famine is a time of scarcity of food, in some cases severe enough to result in starvation. Many parts of the earth are experiencing famine and, especially in Africa, desert is overtaking previously fertile areas. Famine can also occur from socialistic agricultural policies or antiquated transportation systems that inhibit the equitable distribution of food.

and with: Grk. en, prep. death: Grk. thanatos. The noun may imply a natural cause in contrast to the death by sword. Thus, a number of versions translate the noun with "plague" or "pestilence." Infectious diseases have killed as many in history as some of the major wars. In 1350 the Bubonic Plague killed over 25 million people and in 1918 the Spanish flu killed over 27 million (Metz). Many "common" diseases are increasing as a cause of death, not just because of inadequate distribution of vaccines or antibiotics, but because lifesaving drugs often become ineffective as the disease organisms mutate and become resistant to them.

and by: Grk. hupo, prep. the beasts: pl. of Grk. thērion, beast or wild animal; i.e. not domesticated. of the earth: Grk. . Mounce suggests that death by wild animals would be expected in a land decimated by war and famine. While one may associate death from "beasts" with a lion mauling, the description could apply to any disease that may be transmitted from animals to people. Scientific research has linked AIDS with African monkeys. The rare CJD disease in England was linked to the "mad cow" disease of food animals, such as cows and sheep. A viral strain of influenza, H1N1, that spread around the world in 2008-2009, was transmitted from pigs to humans, thus called "swine flu." The Ebola virus outbreak in 2014 originated from bats. The coronavirus pandemic of 2020 also has been traced to bats.

While there is a natural barrier between animals and people as far as transmitting diseases from one to the other, the experience with these diseases has proven that the barrier can be broken down and cause great suffering. Revelation is not clear concerning how the death rate implied in this seal corresponds to the death rate in the rest of Revelation. Note that the trumpets destroy a third (8:7-8, 10-12) and the bowls destroy the rest (16:1ff). A parallel description may be found in Leviticus 26:21-26 and Ezekiel 14:13-20. God warned through Ezekiel that "if a country sins against Me" (Ezek 14:13ff), and even though Noah, Daniel and Job were in that country, it would not be spared the sword, famine, pestilence and wild beasts (cf. Jer 15:5).

Apparently God has granted grace to many cities and nations because of the presence of God's people (cf. Gen 18:23-32), but when these horsemen are unleashed it is a sign that God's forbearance is at an end.

The Fifth Seal Opened (6:9-11)

9― And when he opened the fifth seal, I saw underneath the altar the souls of those having been slain because of the word of God, and because of the testimony which they had kept;

And: Grk. kai, conj. when: Grk. hote, adv. he opened: Grk. anoigō, aor. See verse 2 above. the fifth: Grk. pemptos, adj., a fifth. seal: Grk. sphragis. See verse 1 above. The broken seal reveals a vision of an altar and martyrs, but this time there is no rider. I saw: Grk. horaō, aor. See verse 1 above. John emphasizes that his report is a factual account of his experience. underneath: Grk. hupokatō, prep., indicating 'at a lower level than;' under, underneath, beneath. the altar: Grk. thusiastērion, an altar for sacrifice. In the LXX thusiastērion renders Heb. mizbeach (SH-4196), altar, first in Genesis 8:20. Generally in Scripture the two terms refer to one of the two altars maintained in the tabernacle and temple, the altar of burnt offering and the altar of incense. John does not explain the significance of an altar in heaven nor does he provide any dimensions or design of the altar.

Various Jewish midrashic and mystical sources (such as 1Enoch) during the Second Temple period express a belief in heaven as a place of abode for souls after death. Yeshua and the apostles concur with this view (Luke 23:43; 2Cor 5:1, 8; Php 1:23; 3:20; Rev 13:6). Yet, John also does not explain how millions of the blessed soul could be "underneath," except that the preposition may hint at various levels in heaven. In 8:3 the altar is described as being "before" the throne, meaning that it is within sight of God's throne. Nothing is known of the size of heaven, although the size of the New Jerusalem will be revealed later in Chapter Twenty-one. There is no reason why the vision could not be taken in a spatial sense, since there is plenty of room for the innumerable great tribulation martyrs to be standing "before" the throne (7:9).

the souls: pl. of Grk. psuchē may mean (1) a quality without which a body is physically dead; life; (2) that which possesses vital being; person; or (3) that which is integral to being a person beyond mere physical function; life (inner) self, soul. In the LXX psuchē corresponds to the Heb. nephesh (SH-53-15), that which "breathes" air (Gen 1:20). In Hebrew thought a person is a soul-body. Thus, "soul" does not refer to a non-physical part of a human being, but rather to the whole person. Human beings live as "souls;" they do not have souls (e.g., Acts 2:41; 7:14; 27:37; 1Pet 3:20).

Contrary to the notion that the soul becomes extinct at death, the narrative of this seal affirms that when the body dies, the soul survives (cf. Matt 10:28). Other passages also teach that a person's spirit or soul survives the death of the body (Acts 7:59; 1Cor 5:5; 1Pet 3:18). The soul and spirit, though considered "non-physical" in Greek philosophy (and in Western thought) are just as real as the physical body and cannot be understood by the laws that govern material objects. Evolutionistic humanists deny the reality of the soul and spirit, which means they are also living in denial of the judgment to come after death.

of those: pl. of Grk. ho, definite article but used here as a demonstrative pronoun. having been slain: Grk. sphazō, perf. pass. part. See verse 4 above. There is much speculation by commentators on the identity of these martyrs. A few other passages in Revelation also speak of martyrs (13:15; 18:24; 20:4). John notes that these souls are special for they have been "killed," a graphic word depicting butchery. The identifying description also emphasizes that all in the group shared the same brutality and may depict mass executions. Given the general nature of the description, these martyrs could certainly include all who have ever been killed for their loyalty to Yeshua.

From Stephen, the first martyr for Yeshua, history is replete with murder and mayhem of those who have followed Yeshua. Yeshua prophesied in his Olivet Discourse, "Then they will deliver you to tribulation, and will kill you, and you will be hated by all nations because of my name" (Matt 24:9). Of course, if there is a chronology to be assumed from the seals, then these martyrs may be from a more specific time in history. The description of this seal is probably is meant to point to the war against the followers of Yeshua during the great tribulation, given the anticipation of the wrath of God in the sixth seal and the description of the great tribulation martyrs in 7:9ff.

Rienecker suggests that there may be in this unusual picture an allusion to the Jewish practice of pouring the blood of sacrificial animals at the base of the altar (Lev 4:7; Ex 29:12). Martyrdom would then amount to being sacrificed on the altar of heaven in identification with the Servant-Messiah who called all His disciples to take up their crosses as an act of personal sacrifice. (See also Philippians 2:17 and 2 Timothy 4:6 where Paul likens his impending martyrdom to being a drink offering.) However, the vividness of the image and its symbolic import do not negate the fact of John's report. If the first four seals reveal events that will occur, then the fifth seal must also have a basis in reality.

because of: Grk. dia, prep. Two reasons are given for martyrdom. the word: Grk. logos, vocalized expression, word, discourse, statement, message or speech. In the LXX logos stands principally for Heb. dabar, which has a range of meaning "speech, word, report, command, advice, counsel, thing, matter" (Gen 29:13; BDB 182) (DNTT 3:1087). of God: Grk. theos, God or god, as determined from the context. In the LXX theos primarily renders the name of the Creator God Elohim (2568 times), but sometimes YHVH (300 times) (DNTT 2:67-70). Given the plural nature of Elohim the full triunity of God must be represented in theos. The only God in existence is the God who created the heavens and the earth out of nothing (Gen 1:1) and who chose Israel out of all the nations on the earth for a covenantal relationship (Ex 19:5). In the Besekh theos is used overwhelmingly for the God of Israel. The God of Israel is the only God in existence.

The phrase "word of God" has multiple meanings in Scripture. It refers to the written Word of God containing the revealed knowledge of God and the salvation history of Godís people. The Word of God is also that message of salvation given to a prophet for a particular time and spiritual need. The phrase could refer to Yeshua, as in John 1:1. The reference to the word of God may also relate to the insistence by the followers of Yeshua that God's Word is an absolute standard to judge behavior and that no one, great or small, are exempt from obedience to it. Perhaps there are shades of all those meanings here, but the main point is probably that the martyrs were slain because of their unwavering allegiance to Yeshua who had predicted their suffering (John 16:2, 33).

and because of: Grk. dia, prep. the testimony: Grk. marturiawhich: Grk. hos, relative pronoun. they had kept: Grk. echō, impf. See verse 2 above on "having." The second reason given for their martyrdom is their unwavering conviction of Yeshua as Messiah and Lord. The testimony the martyrs kept can refer to their giving first place to Yeshua and declaring that He is the only way of salvation. Such a testimony is considered narrow-mindedness by the world that sees so many shades of gray and treats all religious belief systems of equal validity. The phrase could also be taken in the legal sense of a refusal to change their testimony or recant their faith while on trial. Consider this, if you were put on trial for being a disciple of Yeshua, would there be enough evidence to convict you?

10― and they cried out with a loud voice, saying, "Until when, O Master, O Holy One and Faithful One, will you not judge and avenge our blood on those dwelling on the earth?"

and: Grk. kai, conj. they cried out: Grk. krazō, aor., may mean (1) to utter a loud cry; scream, cry out, or (2) express something with a vigorous voice; call out. The first meaning applies here. with a loud: Grk. megas, adj. See verse 4 above. voice: Grk. phōnē. See verse 1 above. saying: Grk. legō, pres. part. See verse 1 above. Until: Grk. heōs, conj., a particle marking a limit, here of time; until. when: Grk. pote, interrogative particle, when, at what time. O: Grk. Ō, voc. case, exclamatory particle used when the address is intended to carry special force (DM 71). Master: Grk. despotēs, lord, master or ruler and refers to one who exercises absolute authority (Rienecker).

O: Grk. Ō, voc. case. Holy One: Grk. hagios, adj., voc. case, set apart, holy, sacred. In the LXX hagios translates Heb. qadosh (SH-6918), which means separate, sacred, holy. Qadosh is first used of God in Leviticus 11:44. When used of God the adjective signifies moral purity of the highest degree. His attribute of holiness means God is worthy of reverence and worship. and: Grk. kai, conj. Faithful One: Grk. alēthinos, adj., voc. case, in accord with what is true; (1) true, in the sense of reliable or dependable; (2) opposite of superficial, real, genuine, authentic; or (3) in accord with fact or circumstance, accurate. The first meaning primarily applies here. In the LXX alēthinos translates the Heb. emet (SH-571), "firmness, faithfulness, truth" (BDB 54) (DNTT 3:877).

Emet is often used for truthfulness in God and piety in man. The Rabbis explain rather pedantically that emet contains the first, middle and last letters of the Hebrew alphabet, and that truth ought to be trustworthy through and through (Santala 72). will you not: Grk. ou, adv. judge: Grk. krinō, pres., to subject to scrutiny and evaluation of behavior, to judge. A continuum of judgment may be defined: observe, distinguish, evaluate, analyze, and decide, with the result being positive or negative. In the LXX krinō is used mainly to translate three different Heb. words: din, rib and shaphat, all of which have application in the legal sense (DNTT 2:363). and avenge: Grk. ekdikeō, pres., may mean to (1) avenge someone, procure justice for someone, (2) take vengeance for something, punish something or (3) do justice to oneís official position. The first or second meanings could apply here.

our: Grk. hēmeis, pl. pronoun of the first person. blood: Grk. haima may refer to human or animal blood. The martyrs ask a serious question that on the surface appears to impugn Godís justice. The verbs "judge" and "avenge" are in the present tense, so even in heaven these martyrs comprehend the passage of time without God acting. Surely the God who expects man to do justice (Mic 6:8) will do so Himself? Yet their question assumes there will be a terminus to this period of waiting. The martyrs appeal to God for justice because of three paramount characteristics. First, God is the sovereign ruler of the universe and nothing is outside His power or control. He has all the power needed to carry out His will.

Second, God is holy, which means He is wholly pure and cannot tolerate evil in His presence. Third, God is true, meaning that He is faithful to His children and will do justice as He promised. Their appeal for justice and divine vengeance is based on knowledge of Godís true character. The martyrs also cry out as a group. Prayer is essentially corporate as Yeshua taught His disciples with "our Father" (Matt 6:9). Marvin Wilson quotes an old Hasidic saying, "A prayer which is not spoken in the name of all Israel is no prayer at all" (Wilson, 187). Rightly does Paul declare that if one member suffered, then all members suffer (1Cor 12:26).

The question has arisen among commentators whether the prayer of the martyrs represents a desire for vengeance or a desire for vindication. Some would consider the former desire "Jewish" and the latter "Christian." The Christian response to opposition is thought to be limited to passive toleration of evil and returning good for evil as described by Yeshua (Matt 5:38-48) and Paul (Rom 12:14-21). Consider the prayers of David (Ps 109), Jeremiah (Jer 18:18-23) and Nehemiah (Neh 4:1-5) who prayed for divine justice against the enemies of God. Stephen is cited as the example of the "Christian" virtue, even though he was a Jew, since he was so willing to forgive (Acts 7:60). This is an ironic attribution since the Roman Church from the second century to the twentieth century blamed Jews for deicide and perpetuated institutional unforgiveness toward them.

Stephen, however, pled for forgiveness, presumably on the basis of his countrymenís ignorance, as Yeshua had acknowledged from the cross (Luke 23:24). Knowing the justice and judgment of God, Stephen did not want wrath poured out on his native country because of the injustice done to him, but instead that they would have the opportunity to come to faith in their Messiah. Stephen's plea is similar to the petition of Moses, which God declined to grant and judgment fell anyway (Ex 32:32-35). God would not punish Israel for the unjust death of one person, but Stephen's death did add to the cumulative responsibility for opposing the message of God (Matt 23:34f), and thus Jerusalem was finally destroyed in A.D. 70 for the Judean leaders rejecting both the message and the Messiah (Luke 19:43f).

Regardless of Stephenís prayer, the apostolic message and writings do not invalidate the need for justice so often emphasized in the Tanakh. Rather, there is consistency between the New Covenant and the former covenants in the expectation and promise of doing justice. From the time of Noah, God declared, "whoever sheds manís blood, by man his blood shall be shed, for in the image of God He made man" (Gen 9:6). Since the word "vindicate" means to clear from accusation, it hardly follows that the Revelation martyrs are asking their Savior to prove their innocence to the earthly authorities that ordered their deaths. The martyrs are not asking for censure of their enemies, but that the Supreme Court of the Universe would provide justice for the crimes committed against them. The Apostle Paul declared that God would do this very thing:

"For after all it is only just for God to repay with affliction those who afflict you, and to give relief to you who are afflicted and to us as well when the Lord Yeshua will be revealed from heaven with His mighty angels in flaming fire, dealing out retribution to those who do not know God and to those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Yeshua." (2Th 1:6-8)

Vengeance is merely the application of the punishment justice requires, and as such is not wrong, evil or sub-Christian. God delegated to mankind the authority and duty for justice, including capital punishment as the crime warrants, thus establishing the chief duty of human government (Gen 9:6; Rom 13:4). God simply does not want individual citizens exacting their own vengeance because man's anger rarely metes out punishment proportional to the offense (as in the "eye for an eye" standard). Instead, acting as God's agent government must exact vengeance as He authorized by following the standards that He established in the Torah for justice.

Peter also affirmed the law given to Noah by warning disciples that God would not protect them from the suffering of government vengeance for taking personal revenge (1Pet 4:15-17). However, when human government no longer recognizes the absolute standards of God's Law, denies the Creator, and treats God's people as persona non grata, "What can the righteous do?" (Ps 11:3). The answer is "The Lord is in His holy temple" (Ps 11:4). In other words, God is not on vacation, but the heavenly court is in session and the followers of Yeshua must look to God for the justice He has promised (Ps 11:6-7).

on: Grk. ek, prep. those: pl. of Grk. ho, definite article but used as a demonstrative pronoun. dwelling: Grk. katoikeō, pres. part., means to live, dwell, settle (down) or inhabit. on: Grk. epi, prep. the earth: Grk. . See verse 4 above. This phrase occurs ten times in Revelation (3:10; 8:13; 11:10; 13:8, 14; 17:8; cf. Isa 26:18) and the remaining occurrences normally refer to those who follow the beast and do not turn to God (Stern). The fact that the martyrs speak of these "earth dwellers" as adversaries would support the interpretation that the fifth seal represents the aftermath of the beast's war against the people loyal to Messiah Yeshua (13:7). There is no necessary implication that every loyal citizen of the beast's kingdom actively participates in this persecution.

However, silence can make one an accessory to a crime even after it is committed and therefore deserving of punishment. In common law failure to report a crime of which one has personal knowledge is called misprision. Thus, when the public fails to oppose the beast's war against Yeshua's followers they become guilty under Godís Law and deserving of the same punishment as the actual perpetrators (cf. Ex 23:1f, 7; Lev 5:1; Deut 19:10-13; 21:9; Luke 12:47; James 4:17). The unrighteous in the parable of the sheep and goats are judged guilty for their failure to help the righteous when they are persecuted and suffer various privations (Matt 25:41-45). Set in the context of the Olivet Discourse the parable of the sheep and goats may represent God doing justice for the great tribulation martyrs.

11― And a white robe was given each to them; and it was said to them so that they will rest yet a little time, until also their fellow servants and their brothers should be completed, those being about to be killed as also they.

And: Grk. kai, conj. a white: Grk. leukos, adj. See verse 2 above. robe: Grk. stolē referred to any stately robe, particularly a garment reaching to the feet, or one train-like, sweeping the ground (Rienecker). was given: Grk. didōmi, aor. pass. See verse 2 above. each: Grk. hekastos, adj. used in reference to an individual person or thing; each, every, every one. to them: pl. of Grk. autos, personal pronoun. Though there is no necessary connection to the prayer of the martyrs, they are outfitted by the heavenly clothiers in white robes. White clothing is the uniform of heaven and represents righteous deeds (19:8). Being given the white robes probably occurred upon arrival in heaven and is all the vindication the martyrs need since their suffering came not from their own wrongdoing (cf. 1Pet 4:16).

and: Grk. kai. it was said: Grk. ereō, aor. pass., inform through utterance, here denoting speech completed. to them: pl. of Grk. autos. so that: Grk. hina, conj. they will rest: Grk. anapauō, fut. mid., to refresh with rest; have respite from activity. yet: Grk. eti, adv. expressing addition, yet, still. a little: Grk. mikros, adj., relatively limited in extent, whether in size, measure, quantity or rank, here in reference to time; small, short, little. time: Grk. chronos may mean (1) a span or period of time, or (2) a point or definite moment in time. The first meaning applies here. The martyrs are told that they must wait a little time, an indefinite time period that stands in contrast to other periods of specific duration given in Revelation.

until: Grk. heōs, conj. See verse 10 above. also: Grk. kai. their: pl. of Grk. autos. fellow servants: Grk. sundoulos means fellow slave or servant. In the social sense the term means a person who along with others is someone's property. However, in the fig. sense the term refers to followers of Yeshua sharing ministry together (cf. Col 1:7). and their: pl. of Grk. autos. brothers: pl. of Grk. adelphos, lit. "of the same womb," and in secular Greek meant a male sibling; brother. In the apostolic narratives adelphos primarily refers to blood siblings or fellow Israelites who are of the same blood by virtue of descent from Jacob. In the LXX adelphos is used for the Heb. ach, meaning (1) brother, a male sibling born of the same mother and father (Gen 4:2); also male half-siblings (Gen 20:5). The "brothers" could allude to the faithful remnant of Jews who will suffer the great tribulation (cf. Dan 12:1; Rev 7:4-7).

should be completed: Grk. plēroō, aor. pass. subj., may mean (1) cause to abound in content to a maximum, fill; or (2) to bring to fruition or completion, complete, fulfill, fill up, carry out. The second meaning has application here. those: pl. of Grk. ho, definite article but used here as a demonstrative pronoun. being about: Grk. mellō, pres. part. a future oriented verb with a pending aspect, being in the offing, be about to, be going to. to be killed: Grk. apokteinō, pres. pass. inf. See verse 8 above. as: Grk. hōs, adv. also: Grk. kai. they: pl. of Grk. autos. The Lord exhorts the martyrs that they must wait because there are more who will join them. There is no indication that the fifth seal represents the gathering of God's people at the Second Coming, which includes the catching up of living disciples (cf. 1Th 4:17). The fifth seal describes only martyrs who have been slain, and their brethren who will join them after having been killed.

The reference to additional martyrs to arrive during this waiting period could mean an exact number that God in His omniscience would know. It could also refer to something being completed as a precursor to another event. For example, Yeshua had prophesied that the message of the kingdom would be proclaimed in the whole world as a testimony to all the nations, and then the end would come (Matt 24:14). Scripture does not define how many nations there are or how long it will take to complete the mission; it only states that when one event is completed another one will happen. Thus, the martyrdom of followers of Yeshua will be completed under the reign of the last Antichrist, prompting Yeshua to ask, "When the Son of Man returns will He find faith [lit. "the faith"] on the earth?" (Luke 18:8). The answer is "No."

The Sixth Seal Opened (6:12-17)

12― And I saw when he opened the sixth seal, and there came a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth made of hair, and the whole moon became like blood.

Parallel Passages: Joel 2:10, 31; 3:15

And: Grk. kai, conj. I saw: Grk. horaō, aor. See verse 1 above. when: Grk. hote, adv. he opened: Grk. anoigō, aor. See verse 2 above. the sixth: Grk. hektos, adj., sixth. seal: Grk. sphragis. See verse 1 above. and: Grk. kai. there came: Grk. ginomai, aor. mid., may mean (1) come into being by birth or natural process; (2) to exist through application of will or effort by someone or (3) undergo a state of existence, change or development. The third meaning applies here. a great: Grk. megas, adj. See verse 4 above. earthquake: Grk. seismos, a shaking or commotion, used of a violent disturbance connected with natural phenomena. While used once for a strong storm at sea (Matt 8:24), seismos is used mostly for earthquake.

Seismos occurs seven times in Revelation (8:5, 11:13, 19; and 16:18). The heavenly portent of the sixth seal was originally revealed to Joel,

"Before them the earth quakes, the heavens tremble, the sun and the moon grow dark and the stars lose their brightness. Ö 30 And I will cause wonders in the heavens above and signs on the earth below, blood, and fire, and vapor of smoke. 31 The sun will be turned into darkness and the moon into blood before the great and awesome day of the Lord comes." (Joel 2:10, 30-31)

Earthquakes have always existed, but Yeshua includes seismic events in his list of adverse environmental events that the disciples should expect (Matt 24:7). Charles Wesley, in recounting several catastrophic earthquakes in the 17th and 18th centuries, asserted that earthquakes are truly acts of God, and, whatever the natural cause may be, they are the result of His anger at sin ("The Cause and Cure of Earthquakes," Sermons on Several Occasions, 1872 ed.) Indeed, the Scriptures are replete with prophetic pronouncements attributing earthquakes and climate-related calamities to God acting in judgment. (Jdg 5:4; Job 9:5f; Ps 18:7; 46:8; 75:3; 77:18; 82:5; 97:4f; 104:32; 114:7; Isa 2:19, 21; 13:11, 13; 24:1, 18-20; 29:6; 54:10; Jer 5:9, 22; 10:10; Ezek 38:19f; Joel 2:10; Amos 1:1; Nah 1:5; Hag 2:6; Zech 14:4-5; Matt 24:7; 27:51; Acts 16:26; Heb 12:26)

The prophecy of Yeshua that there would be earthquakes, powerful storms in the sea and unusual stellar occurrences (Luke 21:11, 25) does not mean that he was making a prediction of events outside of God's control (cf. Heb 1:3), but rather that these calamities are simply the end of the self-destruct sequence that began with God's curse in the Garden. The many promises in Scripture that neither the righteous nor God's kingdom can be shaken (e.g., Prov 10:30; Heb 12:28) point to the reality that earthquakes bring fear and torment because people are not ready to meet their Creator and Judge. On the basis of the Olivet prophecy a number of Bible teachers have claimed that a pronounced increase in both the frequency and intensity of earthquakes would occur just prior to the Second Coming and that recent decades have witnessed such a trend.

However, Yeshua did not say that earthquakes would increase in any manner; only that they would happen, and the evidence of scientific reports has not borne out the claims. (See Steven A. Austin and Mark L. Strauss, Earthquakes and the End Times: A Geological and Biblical Perspective, Institute for Creation Research: 1999, 20 January 2005.) Scripture does speak much of a cataclysmic earthquake to come (cf. Ps 99:1; Isa 2:19-21; 13:13; 24:18-21; Joel 2:10; 3:16; Hag 2:6; Heb 12:26-27; Rev 16:18). Seismic activity is mentioned five times in Revelation but three times are labeled "great" (here; 11:13; and 16:18). While no further specific information is provided as to magnitude, the adjective "great" would place this earthquake among history's worst.

and the sun: Grk. hēlios (Heb. shemesh), the sun, the star that is the central body of the solar system, created on the fourth day to "govern the day" (Gen 1:16-19). Its mean distance from the earth is about 93 million miles from the earth, which assures the right balance of heat, light and photosynthesis to sustain all of earth's physical and biological processes. In both the solar system and on the earth "there is nothing hidden from its heat" (Ps 19:6). The sun moves in an orbit through the Milky Way Galaxy (Ps 19:5-6), at a speed that scientists estimate to be 600,000 mph (BBMS 165). The radiant heat energy from the sun provides the physical power to sustain all of earth's physical and biological processes. The sun is certainly "the light of the world (John 18:12), and on the earth, "there is nothing hidden from its heat" (Ps 19:6).

became: Grk. ginomai, aor. mid. black: Grk. melas, adj. See verse 5 above. When the disciples asked Yeshua about the sign of his coming (Matt 24:3), he answered that the sign of Joel would immediately precede his glorious coming in the clouds accompanied by angels (Matt 24:29f). Before identifying the expected sign Yeshua said that the period between the First Advent and the Second Advent would be marked by a number of precursor events, but for the final sign he summarized the warnings of the prophets.

"But immediately after [note "after," not "before"] the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from the sky, and the powers of the heaven will be shaken" (Matt 24:29; cf. Isa 13:6, 10; 24:23; Ezek 32:7; Hag 2:6f; Joel 3:15f; Amos 5:20; 8:9; Zeph 1:15; Mark 13:24-25; Luke 21:11; Acts 2:20.). While Joelís prophecy in particular held spiritual significance for the apostles on Pentecost (Acts 2:20), Yeshua affirmed to John that the unusual phenomenon described in Joel would provide an unmistakable warning that the appearance of the Messiah would shortly happen, giving the tribes of Israel time to repent and turn to their Messiah.

as: Grk. hōs, adv. that connects narrative components and used here for comparison purposes with something that serves as a pattern; just as, like, similar to. sackcloth: Grk. sakkos, coarse cloth. Thayer defines sakkos as a garment of the like material, and clinging to the person like a sack, which was usually worn (or drawn on over the tunic instead of the cloak or mantle) by mourners, penitents, suppliants. The term figures frequently in descriptions of someone sitting in sackcloth and ashes as a sign of fasting or mourning (Esth 4:1, 3; Isa 58:5; Jer 6:26; Dan 9:3; Jon 3:6; Matt 11:21; Luke 10:13). made of hair: Grk. trichinos, adj., made of animal hair.

The eclipse prophesied by Joel and witnessed by John is a most unusual event and John used two points of comparison to describe the appearance of the sun and moon as he saw them. Unlike other biblical prophecies that only state the sun would be "darkened," the revelation to John clarifies that the sun became black as sackcloth. However, the sun is not described as chemically changing into sackcloth. In 16:8 the sun is still full of heat energy and scorching people. The mention of blackness refers not simply to diminished visible light on the earth, but to how the sun appears during a total solar eclipse.

A solar eclipse can only occur at New Moon when the moon passes between the Earth and the Sun. During a solar eclipse, which occurs at least twice a year, the moon covers some or all of the sun's disk and effectively obscures the light from the sun. In that event the lunar disk appears black with a bright solar halo. While a lunar eclipse is safe to observe directly, a solar eclipse is dangerous to the naked eye. (For more information see Fred Espenak, Solar Eclipses for Beginners,, 2009.)

and the whole: Grk. holos, adj., signifier of a person or thing understood as a complete unit and not necessarily every individual part; all, whole, entire. moon: Grk. selēnē (for Heb. yareach), the earth's natural satellite, orbiting the earth at a mean distance of 238,857 miles and having a diameter of 2160 miles. Like the sun the moon was created on the fourth day to "govern the night" (Gen 1:16). The "glory" of the moon is light reflected from the sun. The moon is known to be completely void of life (just as the Bible indicates), but is composed of similar rocks and minerals to those of earth. At the same time, the structure of the moon, as well as the proportions of the different rocks and minerals, is so vastly different from the corresponding attributes of Earth as to make it certain that the two could not have had a common evolutionary origin (BBMS 164).

became: Grk. ginomai, aor. mid. like: Grk. hōs. blood: Grk. haima, blood, whether human or animal. Some prophecies donít explain the nature of the moonís darkening, but here as in Joel the moon became like blood. The moon is not being described as changing chemically into blood, but rather the color of blood. John obviously knew the color of blood since the only time you see blood is on the outside of a body, whether animal or human. While blood is bright red on the inside of a body, it begins to darken when exposed to outside air. The mention of the moon looking like blood is a description of a lunar eclipse.

Lunar eclipses, which only happen at full moon, occur when the moon passes through some portion of the earth's shadow. The shadow is actually composed of two cone-shaped components, one nested inside the other. The outer or penumbral shadow is a zone where the Earth blocks part but not all of the Sun's rays from reaching the Moon. In contrast, the inner or umbral shadow is a region where the Earth blocks all direct sunlight from reaching the Moon. During a total eclipse of the moon, the lunar disk is not completely dark, but is faintly illuminated with a red light refracted by the earth's atmosphere, which filters out the blue rays, resulting in what is popularly called a "blood moon." A lunar eclipse might last 3-4 hours, but the duration of the darkness in a given locality does not generally last more than 60-90 minutes. (See Fred Espenak, Lunar Eclipses for Beginners, 2000.)

The description in this verse says something significant about the atmospheric conditions of the earth at the time of the lunar eclipse. Total lunar eclipses tend to be very dark after major volcanic eruptions since these events dump large amounts of ash into Earthís atmosphere. For example, in December 1992 dust from the Mount Pinatubo eruption during the lunar eclipse rendered the moon nearly invisible. Joel mentions the environmental conditions that accompany and contribute to the appearance of the sun and moon, "I will display wonders in the sky and on the earth, blood, fire and columns of smoke (Joel 2:30). The dark red color of the moon may indicate a similar condition of a significant volcanic eruption triggered by the great earthquake. For John to have witnessed the sun appearing black and the moon appearing dark red at the same time suggests not one eclipse, but two.

Double conjunction eclipses do occur, but simultaneous solar and lunar eclipses are impossible by definition. Double conjunction eclipses do occur in which the Moon obscures two planets at the same time, the last one occurring on April 28, 1998 with the Moon obscuring Jupiter and Venus. The next double conjunction eclipse will occur February 13, 2056. (See Astronomy Picture of the Day: April 28, 1998, NASA.) The Moon is totally dark during a normal solar eclipse, so the Moon would not appear dark red. However, the preeminent signal of the Second Advent is a divinely created event. So, two eclipses could occur if as the sun, earth and moon come into alignment for a lunar eclipse another planetary or asteroid body "happens" along at the same moment to obscure the sun. God has a history of making the impossible a reality.

13― and the stars of heaven fell to the earth, as a fig tree casts its unripe figs being shaken by a great wind.

and: Grk. kai, conj. the stars: pl. of astēr, a luminous heavenly body other than the sun. In Scripture the term may refer to any object in the heavens, whether planets, asteroids, meteors or stars. of heaven: Grk. ouranos refers to the area above the earth that encompasses the atmosphere, interstellar space and the transcendent dwelling-place of God. In the LXX ouranos translates the Heb. hashamayim (lit. "the heavensĒ) (DNTT 2:191). The Hebrew and Greek words for "heaven" are used in Scripture to refer to three different places (Ps 148:1-4). The first heaven is the atmosphere in which birds fly (Gen 1:20; Rev 19:17). The second heaven is interstellar space (Gen 1:1, 8; Matt 24:29) and the third heaven is the location of the throne of God and the home of angels (1Kgs 8:30; Matt 6:9; 2Cor 12:2).

The phrase "stars of heaven" is mentioned first in Genesis 22:17 by God in His promise to Abraham of his descendants being multiplied as the number of stars he could see in the night sky. The idiomatic expression is also applied to Satan as a "star" of heaven (Isa 14:12-13). In addition, angels are represented in Scripture as "stars" (Jdg 5:20; Job 38:4-7; cf. Dan 8:10), and fallen angels together with Satan are depicted as the "powers of the heavens" (Matt 24:29; Rom 8:38; Eph 6:12; 1Pet 3:22).

fell: Grk. piptō, aor., means to (1) fall (down) from a higher point, (2) fall to pieces or (3) be completely ruined (usually in a moral sense of persons). The first meaning applies here. to: Grk. eis, prep., lit. "into." the earth: Grk. . See verse 4 above. Just as the earth suffers a great earthquake, the heavens are also shaken by an unimaginable shock wave. "Fell" is normally a top to down direction but falling has no meaning in outer space. Interpretation is difficult but three approaches have been offered. Taking a symbolic approach the prophecy could be as an allusion to Daniel 8:10, which speaks of a small horn, "It grew up to the host of heaven and caused some of the host and some of the stars to fall to the earth, and it trampled them down (NASB)."

So the falling stars could refer to the fall of Satan and his angels being thrown to the earth. Yeshua saw Satan fall from heaven (Luke 10:18) and John saw Michael the archangel defeat Satan and throw him and his angels to earth (Rev 12:7-9). The text does not provide this symbolic interpretation, but neither is it excluded. Obviously one cannot take the prophecy literalistically since multiple ďstarsĒ falling into the earth would cause planet-wide devastation. Scripture promises that the earth will be destroyed, but not from heavenly bodies crashing into it. The prophecy may be taken from Isaiah 34:4, "And all the host of heaven will wear away, and the sky will be rolled up like a scroll; all their hosts will also wither away as a leaf withers from the vine, or as one withers from the fig tree."

The verb "wear away" (Heb. maqaq) in Isaiah's prophecy away means to rot or decay. The LXX translates maqaq with piptō. However, piptō not only means to fall as a direction, but to fall apart or to collapse as a structure might collapse. A fact of astronomy is that big stars can experience gravitational collapse and when they do it produces a supernova, a massive explosion. Scripture does speak of stars losing their light (Isa 13:10; Ezek 32:7-8, Joel 2:10 and 3:15). A literal approach considers that the sun and moon mentioned in Scripture are called stars and these stars likely refer to bodies in the vicinity of earth. The description here may be of an intense meteor shower crashing on to the earthís surface (Morris).

as: Grk. hōs, adv. a fig tree: Grk. sukē, for Heb. teenah, which also refers to the fruit of the tree, a fruit-producing plant which could be either a tall tree or a low-spreading shrub. The size of the tree depended on its location and soil. The fig tree was one of the blessings promised to Israel in the Land (Deut 8:8) and thus became important to Israelite agriculture. The wood of the fig tree was the primary source of kindling used for the fire on the Temple altar (Tam. 2:1; Yoma 24b). The blooms of the fig tree always appear before the leaves in Spring. There were usually two crops of figs a year. Figs were eaten fresh (2Kgs 18:31), pressed into cakes (2Sam 25:18), and used as a poultice (Isa 38:21).

casts: Grk. ballō, pres., cause movement toward a position, which may be used of a vigorous action and be translated as "cast, throw or hurl," or of a more subdued action and be translated as "put, place, lay or bring" (BAG). The first usage applies here. In this case the verb describes figs blown by the wind (the hand of God) from a tree. its: Grk. autos, personal pronoun. unripe figs: pl. of Grk. olunthos, unripe fig, refers to the green figs that appear in winter and which, while some ripen, many fall off in the spring (Rienecker). being shaken: Grk. seiō, pres. pass. part., to shake, agitate, or cause to tremble.

by: Grk. hupo, prep. a great: Grk. megas, adj. wind: Grk. anemos, wind in the sense of the air currents that influence weather. In general the air currents normally move out of the west, although wind locally can come from any direction. The word picture of the fig tree shedding its figs because of a great wind is an apt description of the meteor shower. It is also possible that debris from a supernova are the objects that enter the earthís atmosphere. The same Wind of the Spirit, which hovered over the waters shaping the earth in the beginning (Gen 1:2), now moves these heavenly objects en masse to the earth in preparation for the end.

14― And the heavens separated as a scroll being rolled up; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places.

And: Grk. kai, conj. the heavens: Grk. ouranos (for Heb. hashamayim). See the previous verse. The translation of "sky" in many versions is misleading since it is but the "face" of hashamayim (Gen 1:20) and in common use refers to earth's atmosphere. separated: Grk. apochōrizō, aor. pass., means to separate or to part (Robertson), but Rienecker thinks that with the analogy of the scroll the verb means to tear apart or to rip apart. as: Grk. hōs, adv. a scroll: Grk. biblion means a book, a scroll or a document. In the LXX biblion translates Heb. sēper, which was used for anything that has been written, such as a scroll, book, writing, letter, diary, or a legal document. Biblion is also used in the LXX for individual sacred writings (Dan 9:2), but most importantly as a solemn expression for the Torah (Deut 17:18; 28:58; cf. Heb 9:19) (DNTT 1:243). John uses an analogy with which he was very familiar.

being rolled up: Grk. helissō, pres. pass. part., to roll up, to coil. The verb occurs only twice in the Besekh (also Heb 1:2). John describes a most unusual phenomenon. The description emphasizes a physical separation and movement. In other words, a biblical scroll involved two spindles in which the scripture medium was wound. Scrolls had to be handled carefully in unrolling them to avoid tearing the fabric. The word picture here is of a scroll being torn and the halves rolling back to the two spindles. What can this word picture imply about the heavens? To answer that question we must consider how the heavens were created.

In the beginning when God created the cosmos, He began by creating a ball of water called "the deep" (Gen 1:2; perhaps a watery black hole). Then He separated the waters to create an expanse or firmament and He called the expanse hashamayim, "the heavens" (Gen 1:6-8). From that point God "stretched out" the heavens (Job 9:8; 26:7; 37:18; Ps 104:2; Isa 40:22; 42:5; 44:24; 45:12; 48:13; 51:13; Jer 10:12; 51:15; Zech 12:1) to achieve the incredible distances of interstellar space. This means that interstellar space is not just an empty nothing, but is a real something (Humphreys 67f). Thus, Scripture indicates that the heavens can be torn (Isa 64:1), worn out (Ps 102:26), shaken (Hag 2:6; Isa 13:13; Heb 12:26), burnt up (2Pet 3:12), and rolled up (Isa 34:4; Heb 1:12).

While man can observe the first and second heavens, the third heaven is unseen and invisible. But, on the last day God will separate the fabric of the second heaven to reveal the reality of the third heaven and Yeshua returning to the earth (Mark 13:26; Rev 1:7). This revelation explains the terror experienced in the following narrative.

and: Grk. kai. every: Grk. pas, adj., comprehensive in scope, but without statistical emphasis; all, every. mountain: Grk. oros, means "mountain," "hill," or "hill-country." The corresponding Heb. word, har, is given in Scripture to a comparatively large ridge, a collection of small hills and to many hogbacks in Israel. Modern science distinguishes hills from mountains by classifying a hill as being less than 1,000 feet above its surroundings, but the distinction may depend upon local interpretation. and island: Grk. nēsos, island, lit. "floating land." An island is simply the tip of a mountain mostly covered by water (cf. Jonah 2:6). were moved: Grk. kineō, aor. pass., means to move away, remove or set in motion. The passive tense of the verb emphasizes the divine action to bring about the event. out of: Grk. ek, prep. their: pl. of Grk. autos, personal pronoun. places: pl. of Grk. topos, a spatial area or 'place.'

The great earthquake is mentioned again, but now the global magnitude of the quake is emphasized (cf. Isa 40:4f). This earthquake may at first be localized, but apparently triggers a major slippage of the earthís crustal plates that move the mountains and islands out of their places. The brevity of the statement and the mention of the dual locations constitute a powerful understatement of global devastation! Of course, even slight movement of the earthís surface will cause severe damage to man-made structures. The great quake described in 16:18-20 may be a restatement of this quake, or it may be a separate quake following closely on the heels of the one mentioned here since earthquakes often occur in a series. What may seem like a significant quake can be followed shortly thereafter by an even greater temblor.

While the length of time for completion of the earthquake, eclipse and stars falling is not mentioned, these cataclysmic signs portend the Lord's coming and in terms of sequence take place after the great tribulation and immediately preceding the visible return of Yeshua and the gathering of those belonging to him (Matt 24:29ff). This sequence reinforces the interpretation that the fifth seal refers primarily to the great tribulation in which the number of martyrs is completed and that the sixth seal depicts the conclusion to the bowls of wrath. Joel also places these signs as preparatory to the Day of the Lord, the day on which the battle of Armageddon occurs (Joel 2:30 ─ 3:2). Taken together these passages confirm that the day of Godís wrath (6:17) should not be confused with the great tribulation.

15― And the kings of the earth and the great ones and the commanders and the rich and the strong and every slave and free, hid themselves in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains.

And: Grk. kai, conj. Seven stations of life are named, covering the whole fabric of society from the king down to the lowest slave (Rienecker). The list is remarkably parallel to the group given in 19:18, and not only could describe people from all nations but especially those gathered for the battle of Armageddon. the kings: pl. of basileus, king or chief ruler. In the LXX basileus appears frequently to translate Heb. melek (SH-4428). In the Tanakh the title "king" was not associated with the size of territory governed (often a city), but the authority wielded. The executive and judicial functions (and sometimes legislative) of government were vested in one person. of the earth: Grk. . See verse 4 above.

and the great ones: pl. of Grk. megistan, very important person; highly ranked person, very great one. In the LXX megistan renders three different Hebrew words: (1) addir (SH-117), noble, majestic one (Jer 14:3; Nah 2:5; Zech 11:2); (2) gadol (SH-1419), great one (Jon 3:7; Nah 3:10); and (3) sar (SH-8269), chieftain, prince, ruler (2Chr 36:18; Prov 8:16; Isa 34:12; Jer 24:8; 25:19; 34:10; 49:38; 50:35). Rienecker says the term refers to magistrates or civil officials in authority.

and the commanders: pl. of Grk. chiliarchos, (from chilioi, thousand, and archō, rule), lit. "leader of a thousand," a high ranking military officer who commanded a thousand men or more, corresponding to the Tribune in the Roman army (Rienecker). The title could refer to the Tribunus Laticlavius, who served as second in command of the legion (5,000-6,000 men), named for the broad striped toga worn by men of senatorial rank. This tribune was appointed by the Emperor or the Senate. The title more likely refers to Tribuni Angusticlavii, of which there were five in a legion. This Tribune performed many of the important administrative tasks of the Legion, but still served in a full tactical command function of a fifth of the legion during engagements. (See for details on the Roman army.)

and the rich: pl. of Grk. plousios, possessing abundance of earthly possessions, rich or wealthy. In ancient society possession of material things and status were closely associated. In the LXX plousios translates several Hebrew words (first in Gen 13:2 describing Abraham), but normally it renders Heb. ashir (SH-6223), wealthy, rich (e.g., Ruth 3:10) (DNTT 2:841). While there are a number of wealthy men in Scripture who were godly, the class of rich men is generally not held in a favorable light in the Besekh, because they oppressed the poor (Luke 16:19-21; Jas 2:6).

and the strong: pl. of Grk. ischuros, strong, mighty or powerful, originally used of physical strength. In the LXX ischuros renders 25 different Hebrew words altogether, generally describing the physical strength of humans (Num 13:18), animals (Prov 30:30) or God (Deut 10:17) (DNTT 3:713). Ischuros is also used many times in the LXX is to describe the strength or population of a nation or people (e.g., Gen 14:5; Deut 2:10; 4:38; 7:1; 9:1), which would equate to military power.

and every: Grk. pas, adj. See the previous verse. slave: Grk. doulos, generally used of a male slave, who is viewed as owned property totally and unquestioningly at the behest of the owner. The economies of ancient empires were based on slave labor and slavery typically occurred as a result of being captured in war and then sold. Legally a slave had no rights. In the LXX doulos translates the Heb. ebed, which did include the meaning of doulos but with a much broader application. In the Tanakh ebed is especially used of household servants, those who worked for the King and those who served God, especially service in the temple (DNTT 3:593). Hebrew culture was different from pagan nations in that while there were some occasions when defeated enemies were enslaved (Num 31:7-9; Deut 20:10-12), slavery was most often a form of indentured servitude.

Yeshua spoke of slaves in some of his teaching as employees with significant stewardship responsibility (Matt 10:24; 13:27; 18:23; 20:27; 21:34; 22:3; 24:45; 25:14). Paul, writing to congregations in the Diaspora where Roman laws of slavery prevailed gave instructions to slaves for their service (Eph 6:5-8; Col 3:22-25) and to masters for their treatment of slaves (Eph 6:9; Col 4:1). He did advise disciples who were slaves to seek freedom if possible (1Cor 7:21; cf. Deut 23:15-16). What separates a slave from a free person is independence. To the average person the right to manage one's own life as one chooses is the essence of freedom. Slavery is the abrogation of one's autonomy and the subordination to the will of another.

and free: Grk. eleutheros, adj., enjoying freedom from constraint. The adjective has a wide range of application: (1) a non-slave status or being freed from slavery (1Cor 7:21; 12:13; Eph 6:8; Col 3:11); (2) independent, not bound by constraints that apply to others (Matt 17:3; 1Cor 7:39; 9:1, 19); or (3) spiritual freedom (Rom 6:20; 1Cor 7:22; 1Pet 2:16). hid: Grk. kruptō, aor., to keep from view, to conceal or hide. themselves: pl. of Grk. heautou, reflexive pronoun of the third person to denote that the agent and the person acted on are the same. in: Grk. eis, prep. the caves: pl. of spēlaion, a cave or cavern as a natural formation. The term occurs six times in the Besekh and used as a place of hiding for thieves (Matt 21:13; Mark 11:17; Luke 19:46), a place of burial (John 11:38) and place of refuge, as here (Heb 11:38).

and among: Grk. eis. the rocks: pl. of Grk. petra, rock, generally of a rock formation as distinct from a single stone. of the mountains: pl. of Grk. oros. See the previous verse. When the inhabitants of the earth experience such overwhelming calamities, they immediately seek shelter in clefts, caves, caverns and other natural formations, as prophesied by Isaiah,

"People will go into the caves of the rocks and into the holes of the earth, because of the fear of ADONAI and the splendor of His majesty, when He arises to shake the earth." (Isa 2:19 TLV)

This is a day of terror for all regardless of social status (cf. Isa 2:10; 13:7-8). In a futile effort to avoid facing God these men of position, power and prestige find themselves seeking shelter along with common people with whom they would not normally associate.

16― and they say to the mountains and to the rocks, "Fall on us and hide us from the face of the One sitting on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb;

and: Grk. kai, conj. they say: Grk. legō, pres., 3p-pl. See verse 1 above. to the mountains: pl. of Grk. oros. See verse 14 above. and to the rocks: pl. of Grk. petra. See the previous verse. Fall: Grk. piptō, aor. imp. See verse 13 above. on: Grk. epi, prep. us: Grk. hēmeis, pl. pronoun of the first person. and hide: Grk. kruptō, aor. imp. See the previous verse. us: Grk. hēmeis. from: Grk. apo, prep. the face: Grk. prosōpon, is used to mean (1) the face, by which someone is identified; (2) the countenance or visage projected by someone; and (3) a personal presence or the act of appearing before someone. The first meaning is likely intended with a nuance of the third.

In the LXX prosōpon renders Heb. paneh/panim (SH-6440) face, faces, used literally of the part of anatomy with eyes and ears, whether of a human, animal or angel (DNTT 1:585). It is also used of the surface of the ground or the edge of the atmosphere. When combined with a preposition it may mean being in the sight of someone, in the presence of someone or in front of someone. The descriptor is frequently used of the face or presence of God (e.g., Gen 16:13; 32:30; Ex 24:9-11; Num 6:25f; Deut 4:12; Jdg 6:22-23; Ps 13:2; 104:29). Scripture contains the warning that no one can see the face of God and live (Ex 33:20).

The use of prosōpon emphasizes the very personal nature of God doing justice for His people. The followers of the beast may be unmoved by the trumpet and bowl plagues, but they will tremble when they come face to face with God. Ironically the people pray to the mountains and rocks, a reflection of the modern evolutionist viewpoint that invests the material universe with the power to bring itself into existence and influence the lives of people. Evidently the prospect of being buried in an avalanche is preferable to seeing the face of God, although in reality they will not be spared personal accountability (Rev 20:11f). Yeshua had already warned of this incident happening when He was being taken to Golgotha. As his supporters were mourning, Yeshua repeated the prophecy of Hosea, "Then they will begin to say to the mountains, 'Fall on us,' and to the hills, 'cover us'" (Hos 10:8; Luke 23:30). Perhaps the bombardment of boulder-size hailstones in the seventh bowl of wrath (16:21) is Godís answer to their idolatrous prayer to the mountains and rocks.

of the One: Grk. ho, definite article but used here as a demonstrative pronoun. sitting: Grk. kathēmai, pres. part. See verse 2 above. on: Grk. epi, prep. the throne: Grk. thronos refers to a throne or chair upon which a king sits. Ancient thrones typically had a high back-rest and arm-rests and sometimes with a foot-stool. The throne was the official place from which the king exercised his power, authority and judgment. The term is often used figuratively in Scripture of sovereignty or dominion (DNTT 2:611-615). Thronos is a significant word in Revelation, occurring 46 times and referring primarily to the throne of God the Father, since the Son has his own throne (3:21; 12:5; cf. Ezek 1:26-28; Heb 8:1; 12:2) and the Holy Spirit is never associated with sitting on a throne.

Yet, the throne of God emphasizes the unity of the Godhead since the throne is of God and the Lamb (Rev 7:17; 22:1, 3). Much activity occurs in relation to the throne. Few specific details are offered to describe God's throne, but the frequent mention of the word reminds the reader that God's sovereignty, dominion and judgment are exercised from heaven over all who live on the earth, as David says, "The Lord has established his throne in the heavens, and his sovereignty rules over all" (Ps 103:19). Alluding to the throne Paul said that God dwells in unapproachable light (1Tim 6:16). He could give this report since he was caught up to Paradise (2Cor 12:4). John offers more detail in his description (Rev 4:3-6).

and from: Grk. apo. the wrath: Grk. orgē means anger, indignation or wrath. Orgē is the preferred word in the apostolic writings for the judgment of God at the end of the age (11:18; 16:19; 19:15; cf. Matt 3:7; Luke 21:23; Rom 5:9; 1Th 1:10; 5:9). The word "wrath" refers to Godís anger at sin and the resulting eternal punishment that He imposes as a just recompense. God's wrath began in the Garden of Eden where Adam and Chavvah received the predicted penalty of disobedience (Gen 2:17; 1Cor 15:22). Because of being born into Adam's race all people are by nature "children of wrath" (Eph 2:3). The first occurrence of a word for God's wrath in Scripture is in Numbers 16:46, referring to a plague God sent upon His people for grumbling. Thereafter, most of the references to Godís wrath in Scripture pertain to punishment for wickedness, whether of Israel or the nations.

of the Lamb: Grk. arnion. See verse 1 above. Those who follow the beast cringe at the prospect of the wrath of the Lamb. Yeshua said that the Father had delegated to Him the authority of judgment (John 5:22). Many cannot reconcile the wrath of God with the love of God represented by the Lamb of God, a figure for the atoning sacrifice. Yet, in the context of God's covenant with Israel, His wrath is an expression of wounded and rejected love (DNTT 1:109). Yeshua wept over Jerusalem knowing that destruction from her enemies awaited Israel because the leaders did not accept the Messiah (Luke 13:34f; 19:41-44). The Lord expressed His attitude to Ezekiel, "I take no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but rather that the wicked turn from his way and live" (Ezek 33:11).

In the context of the petition of the unbelievers the reference to "the one sitting on the throne" and the Lamb seems strange. In order to believe in God's wrath one would have to believe in His existence, which is routinely denied in the world. Even those who talk about the "man upstairs" certainly do not believe they will be punished for their sins and the notion that natural calamities might be God's doing is ridiculed, even by many Christians. However, in view of the global earthquake, double eclipse and meteor shower, the inhabitants of the earth will no doubt be overcome by a severe dread of doom about to fall. It may be that before their deaths the followers of Yeshua will warn their persecutors to "flee the wrath to come" (cf. Matt 3:7) and the unbelievers, failing to heed the warning, attribute these dire events to the God of the martyrs.

17― because the great day of their wrath has come; and who is able to stand?"

because: Grk. hoti, conj. that serves as a link between two sets of data, here indicating causality with an inferential aspect; for, because, inasmuch as. the great: Grk. megas, adj. See verse 4 above. "Great" identifies the day of singular importance above other days. day: Grk. hēmera may refer to (1) the daylight hours from sunrise to sunset, (2) the civil or legal day that included the night, (3) an appointed day for a special purpose or (4) a longer or imprecise period, such as a timeframe for accomplishing something or a time of life or activity (BAG). The third meaning applies here. Just as Godís Word predicts a terrible tribulation for followers of Yeshua at the hands of the Antichrist, so Scripture also promises a "great day" of wrath at the end of history when the Lord destroys His enemies in the Second Coming.

For a summary of the various synonyms for this event and the prophecies associated with it see my article The Day of the Lord. The word "day" when used in "day of the Lord" or "day of wrath" must refer to the human reckoning of time that is 24 hours or less. There is no compelling reason why the Day of the Lord must be interpreted as lasting months or years based on one's view of when the resurrection occurs. When one examines closely the passages describing the "Day of the Lord," it becomes apparent that this special day and the scene of this seal is the conclusion of the period of trumpet and bowl judgments, which are detailed in the seventh seal.

of their: pl. of Grk. autos, personal pronoun. The plural pronoun alludes to both God and the Lamb. wrath: Grk. orgē. See the previous verse. has come: Grk. erchomai, aor. See verse 1 above. The unbelievers lament that God's judgment has come, emphasizing anticipation of the Day of the Lord. Everything that was to precede the arrival of the Day of the Lord has been completed. Those who chose to follow the beast have suffered the affliction and distress of the trumpet and bowl judgments (cf. Rom 2:9), most likely as punishments meted out for the beast's war against God's people, and now they must face the arrival of the Son of Man and the armies of heaven who will perform the coup de gr‚ce.

who: Grk. tŪs, interrogative pronoun indicating interest in establishing something definite; who, which, what, why. is able: Grk. dunamai, pres. mid., to be capable of doing or achieving; be able. to stand: Grk. histēmi, aor. pass. inf., may mean (1) cause to be in a place or position; (2) to be in an upright position, used of bodily posture; (3) to set or place in a balance; (4) fig. to stand ready, to be of a steadfast mind. The first meaning applies here with a nuance of the fourth. The question spoken aloud among themselves is a recognition by the enemies of God that they cannot possibly hope to survive the immanent battle.

The question must of necessity point to that day when unbelievers will stand before heaven's court (20:11-15) where no evidence can be offered that will bring acquittal. The guilty verdict with its just punishment is anticipated. The righteous know, of course, that they only stand before God as blameless because of the meritorious work of Yeshua (1Cor 1:8; 1Th 3:13; 5:23). The warnings of the harvest parables in the apostolic narratives in which wheat would be gathered into a barn and chaff and tares would be burned with unquenchable fire (Matt 3:7-12; 13:36-42) carry the foreboding sense that the wrath of God will end with the wicked spending eternity away from the love of God in a hellish place.

In contrast to the reaction of the world to the herald of the Messiah's coming, the heavenly portent will be the final opportunity for Israel to repent, "And it will come about that whoever calls on the name of the Lord will be delivered; for on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there will be those who escape, as the Lord has said, even among the survivors whom the Lord calls" (Joel 2:32). Zechariah also spoke of Israel's repentance saying, "I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced" (Zech 12:10; cf. Rev 1:7). While the heavenly and earthly calamities bring dread to the opponents of God, these events give Israel and "whoever wills" the hope of salvation (Rom 11:26).

Works Cited

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